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Sancho D.,CSIC - National Center for Metallurgical Research | Reis e Sousa C.,London Research Institute
Annual Review of Immunology | Year: 2012

Myeloid cells are key drivers of physiological responses to pathogen invasion or tissue damage. Members of the C-type lectin receptor (CLR) family stand out among the specialized receptors utilized by myeloid cells to orchestrate these responses. CLR ligands include carbohydrate, protein, and lipid components of both pathogens and self, which variably trigger endocytic, phagocytic, proinflammatory, or anti-inflammatory reactions. These varied outcomes rely on a versatile system for CLR signaling that includes tyrosine-based motifs that recruit kinases, phosphatases, or endocytic adaptors as well as nontyrosine-based signals that modulate the activation of other pathways or couple to the uptake machinery. Here, we review the signaling properties of myeloid CLRs and how they impact the role of myeloid cells in innate and adaptive immunity. © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source

Costanzo V.,London Research Institute
DNA Repair | Year: 2011

Homologous recombination (HR) is required for faithful repair of double strand breaks (DSBs) and is believed to be important for DNA replication under stressful conditions in unicellular organisms. However, its role during DNA replication in high eukaryotes has always been elusive. In particular, due to the essential nature of its main players it has been difficult to dissect the direct role of HR in DNA replication.Recent studies revealed that some key HR factors such as Rad51 and BRCA2 play unexpected functions during DNA replication by protecting nascent DNA from Mre11 mediated degradation, which takes place at stalled replication forks. These novel functions appear to be essential to ensure smooth progression of DNA replication and to promote maintenance of genome stability. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Errico A.,London Research Institute | Costanzo V.,London Research Institute
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Year: 2012

During S-phase, the genome is extremely vulnerable and the progression of replication forks is often threatened by exogenous and endogenous challenges. When replication fork progression is halted, the intra S-phase checkpoint is activated to promote structural stability of stalled forks, preventing the dissociation of replisome components. This ensures the rapid resumption of replication following DNA repair. Failure in protecting and/or restarting the stalled forks contributes to alterations of the genome. Several human genetic diseases coupled to an increased cancer predisposition are caused by mutations in genes involved in safeguarding genome integrity during DNA replication. Both the ATR (ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein) kinase and the Replication pausing complex (RPC) components Tipin, Tim1 and Claspin play key roles in activating the intra S-phase checkpoint and in stabilizing the stalled replication forks. Here, we discuss the specific contribution of these factors in preserving fork structure and ensuring accurate completion of DNA replication. © 2012 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source

Sarbajna S.,Cancer Research UK Research Institute | Davies D.,London Research Institute | West S.C.,Cancer Research UK Research Institute
Genes and Development | Year: 2014

The resolution of recombination intermediates containing Holliday junctions (HJs) is critical for genome maintenance and proper chromosome segregation. Three pathways for HJ processing exist in human cells and involve the following enzymes/complexes: BLM-TopoIIIa-RMI1-RMI2 (BTR complex), SLX1-SLX4-MUS81- EME1 (SLX-MUS complex), and GEN1. Cycling cells preferentially use the BTR complex for the removal of double HJs in S phase, with SLX-MUS and GEN1 acting at temporally distinct phases of the cell cycle. Cells lacking SLX-MUS and GEN1 exhibit chromosome missegregation, micronucleus formation, and elevated levels of 53BP1-positive G1 nuclear bodies, suggesting that defects in chromosome segregation lead to the transmission of extensive DNA damage to daughter cells. In addition, however, we found that the effects of SLX4, MUS81, and GEN1 depletion extend beyond mitosis, since genome instability is observed throughout all phases of the cell cycle. This is exemplified in the form of impaired replication fork movement and S-phase progression, endogenous checkpoint activation, chromosome segmentation, and multinucleation. In contrast to SLX4, SLX1, the nuclease subunit of the SLX1-SLX4 structure-selective nuclease, plays no role in the replication-related phenotypes associated with SLX4/MUS81 and GEN1 depletion. These observations demonstrate that the SLX1-SLX4 nuclease and the SLX4 scaffold play divergent roles in the maintenance of genome integrity in human cells. © 2014 Sarbajna et al. Source

Hashimoto Y.,London Research Institute | Chaudhuri A.R.,University of Zurich | Lopes M.,University of Zurich | Costanzo V.,London Research Institute
Nature Structural and Molecular Biology | Year: 2010

The role of Rad51 in an unperturbed cell cycle has been difficult to distinguish from its DNA repair function. Here, using EM to visualize replication intermediates assembled in Xenopus laevis egg extract, we show that Rad51 is required to prevent the accumulation of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) gaps at replication forks and behind them. ssDNA gaps at forks arise from extended uncoupling of leading- and lagging-strand DNA synthesis. In contrast, ssDNA gaps behind forks, which are prevalent on damaged templates, result from Mre11-dependent degradation of newly synthesized DNA strands and are suppressed by inhibition of Mre11 nuclease activity. These findings reveal direct roles for Rad51 at replication forks, demonstrating that Rad51 protects newly synthesized DNA from Mre11-dependent degradation and promotes continuous DNA synthesis. © 2010 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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