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London, United Kingdom

London Metropolitan University, commonly known as London Met, is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom. It was established in 1848, making it one of London’s oldest educational institutions. ] and London Guildhall University . The University has campuses in the City of London and in the London Borough of Islington, with a museum, as well as archives and libraries. Special collections include the TUC Library, the Irish Studies Collection and the Frederick Parker Collection. Wikipedia.

Menyah K.,London Metropolitan University
Energy Policy | Year: 2010

This study explores the causal relationship between carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, renewable and nuclear energy consumption and real GDP for the US for the period 1960-2007. Using a modified version of the Granger causality test, we found a unidirectional causality running from nuclear energy consumption to CO2 emissions without feedback but no causality running from renewable energy to CO2 emissions. The econometric evidence seems to suggest that nuclear energy consumption can help to mitigate CO2 emissions, but so far, renewable energy consumption has not reached a level where it can make a significant contribution to emissions reduction. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Menyah K.,London Metropolitan University
Energy Economics | Year: 2010

This article attempts to test the causal relationship between nuclear energy consumption and real GDP for nine developed countries for the period 1971-2005 by including capital and labour as additional variables. Using a modified version of the Granger causality test developed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995), we found a unidirectional causality running from nuclear energy consumption to economic growth in Japan, Netherlands and Switzerland; the opposite uni-directional causality running from economic growth to nuclear energy consumption in Canada and Sweden; and a bi-directional causality running between economic growth and nuclear energy consumption in France, Spain, the United Kingdom and the United States. In Spain, the United Kingdom and the USA, increases in nuclear energy consumption caused increases in economic growth implying that conservation measures taken that reduce nuclear energy consumption may negatively affect economic growth. In France, Japan, Netherlands and Switzerland increases in nuclear energy consumption caused decreases in economic growth, suggesting that energy conservation measure taken that reduce nuclear energy consumption may help to mitigate the adverse effects of nuclear energy consumption on economic growth. In Canada and Sweden energy conservation measures affecting nuclear energy consumption may not harm economic growth. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Hou Z.,London Metropolitan University
Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications | Year: 2013

For competitive Lotka-Volterra systems, Ahmad and Lazer's work [S. Ahmad, A.C. Lazer, Average growth and total permanence in a competitive Lotka-Volterra system, Annali di Matematica 185 (2006) S47-S67] on total permanence of systems without delays has been extended to delayed systems [Z. Hou, On permanence of all subsystems of competitive Lotka-Volterra systems with delays, Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications 11 (2010) 4285-4301]. In this paper, existence and boundedness of nonnegative solutions and permanence are considered for general Lotka-Volterra systems with delays including competitive, cooperative, predator-prey and mixed type systems. First, a condition is established for the existence and boundedness of solutions on a half line. Second, a necessary condition on the limits of the average growth rates is provided for permanence of all subsystems. Then the result for competitive systems is also proved for the general systems by using the same techniques. Just as for competitive systems, the eminent finding is that permanence of the system and all of its subsystems is completely irrelevant to the size and distribution of the delays. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Boyle T.,London Metropolitan University
Computers and Education | Year: 2010

The use of ICT to enhance teaching and learning depends on effective design, which operates at many levels of granularity from the small to the very large. This reflects the range of educational problems from course design down to the design of activities focused on specific learning objectives. For maximum impact these layers of design need to be co-ordinated effectively. This paper delineates a reference model of 'layered learning design' where designs at one layer should use and incorporate designs from lower (more specific) layers in elegant and powerful ways. This would allow different designers, or tutors, to focus on different levels of abstraction in the learning design process, and to collaborate in combining designs to make a substantial impact on practice. The paper first delineates a model of the different layers of learning design. These layers range from the strategic structuring of learning activity (to achieve high-level goals) down to the design for basic learning activities. The paper then tackles the issue of the integration of this model with a major 'aggregation' model for learning objects. The essential insight is that learning objects should be viewed as instances of learning designs. This leads to a combined reference model where there is a correspondence between learning designs and learning object types at each layer. Finally, the paper applies the combined model to map some major contributions to learning design research and development. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Fuel poverty has been most commonly researched in the UK although it is experienced in other parts of Europe, to varying degrees. Boardman (1991) showed that energy inefficient buildings and heating systems are the most significant components of fuel poverty and highlighted the legacy of older buildings in this country that remain the majority of those now recognised as hard to treat. This paper considers the historical context for fuel poverty as a particularly British phenomenon. It examines claims that this is due to the mild climate and low indoor temperature expectations. It is concluded that there are significant differences from the European situation. The climate, particularly its characteristic changeability, has influenced building and heating methods, and the low priority given to energy efficiency by legislators. Significantly, economic priorities produced poor quality mass housing during the industrial revolution. The availability of coal encouraged the use of open fires, which demanded high ventilation rates. The British do value warmth but older buildings designed for heating with radiant open fires are difficult to adapt to convective central heating. Lessons can be drawn for newly industrialised economies similarly producing poor quality mass housing with low priorities for energy efficiency. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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