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El-Setouhy M.,Substance Abuse Research Center Jazan UniversityJazan Kingdom of Saudi Arabia | Alsanosi R.,Substance Abuse Research Center Jazan UniversityJazan Kingdom of Saudi Arabia | Blancato J.,Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer CenterGeorgetown UniversityWashington | Loffredo C.,Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer CenterGeorgetown UniversityWashington
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2016

The study sought to identify genetic aberrations driving oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) development among users of shammah, an Arabian preparation of smokeless tobacco. Twenty archival OSCC samples, 15 of which with a history of shammah exposure, were whole-exome sequenced at an average depth of 127×. Somatic mutations were identified using a novel, matched controls-independent filtration algorithm. CODEX and Exomedepth coupled with a novel, Database of Genomic Variant-based filter were employed to call somatic gene-copy number variations. Significantly mutated genes were identified with Oncodrive FM and the Youn and Simon's method. Candidate driver genes were nominated based on Gene Set Enrichment Analysis. The observed mutational spectrum was similar to that reported by the TCGA project. In addition to confirming known genes of OSCC (TP53, CDKNA2, CASP8, PIK3CA, HRAS, FAT1, TP63, CCND1 and FADD) the analysis identified several candidate novel driver events including mutations of NOTCH3, CSMD3, CRB1, CLTCL1, OSMR and TRPM2, amplification of the proto-oncogenes FOSL1, RELA, TRAF6, MDM2, FRS2 and BAG1, and deletion of the recently described tumor suppressor SMARCC1. Analysis also revealed significantly altered pathways not previously implicated in OSCC including Oncostatin-M signalling pathway, AP-1 and C-MYB transcription networks and endocytosis. There was a trend for higher number of mutations, amplifications and driver events in samples with history of shammah exposure particularly those that tested EBV positive, suggesting an interaction between tobacco exposure and EBV. The work provides further evidence for the genetic heterogeneity of oral cancer and suggests shammah-associated OSCC is characterized by extensive amplification of oncogenes. © 2016 UICC.

Jang S.,Inova Dwight and Martha Schar Cancer InstituteFairfax | Zheng C.,Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer CenterGeorgetown UniversityWashington | Tsai H.-T.,Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer CenterGeorgetown UniversityWashington | Fu A.Z.,Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer CenterGeorgetown UniversityWashington | And 5 more authors.
Cancer | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND: Sorafenib and sunitinib are oral vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) approved in 2005 and 2006, respectively, for the treatment of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). A population-based, observational cohort study of the cardiovascular risk of VEGFR TKI therapy in elderly RCC patients was conducted. METHODS: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare database, this study analyzed patients who were 66 years old or older and were diagnosed with RCC from 2000 to 2009. The incidence of cardiovascular adverse events, including congestive heart failure and cardiomyopathy (CHF/CM), acute myocardial infarction (AMI), stroke, and cardiovascular deaths, was examined through December 2010. A Cox proportional hazards model was created to calculate the hazard ratio (HR), and adjustments were made for age, sex, comorbidity, and the use of other systemic therapy. RESULTS: A total of 171 of 670 patients who received sunitinib or sorafenib had cardiovascular events. The incidence rates for CHF/CM, AMI, and stroke were 0.87, 0.14, and 0.14 per 1000 person-days, respectively. Sunitinib or sorafenib use was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events (HR, 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.87) and especially stroke (HR, 2.84; 95% CI, 1.52-5.31) in comparison with 788 patients diagnosed with advanced RCC from 2007 to 2009 who were eligible for Part D but did not receive either agent. In subgroup analyses, patients who were 66 to 74 years old at diagnosis had the highest increased risk of stroke associated with the use of either or both drugs. CONCLUSIONS: Sunitinib and sorafenib might be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events and particularly stroke. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

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