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Smith K.W.,Fat Science Consulting Ltd | Bhaggan K.,IOI Loders Croklaan Bv | Talbot G.,The Fat Consultant
European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology | Year: 2013

The unique properties of cocoa butter (CB) are due to the fact that it is composed, for the most part, of just three TAGs, 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoylglycerol (POP), 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoylglycerol (StOSt), and rac-1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-stearoylglycerol (POSt). In this study we have examined blends, at 10% intervals, across the ternary of these three TAG by stabilizing them during a lengthy temperature regime designed to induce the most stable polymorph at the point of melting. The liquidus observed is in good agreement with that predicted using the Hildebrand model. A eutectic is seen in each binary system, with a possible ternary eutectic present at about POP:POSt 1:1 and <10% StOSt. CB stabilized following the same regime exhibits solid fat contents much greater than those obtained following the standard IUPAC 2.150(b) stabilization, likely to be due to the presence of the βVI polymorph rather than the βV form. Practical applications: The processing characteristics and final properties of fat based products depend greatly on the composition, crystallization, and melting properties of the fat or fats involved. In the case of chocolate and confectionery, this fat is CB. The present study confirms many of the relevant published phase diagrams and emphasizes the compositional areas having similar melting behavior to that of CB and, hence, suitable for cocoa butter equivalents. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Zwagerman R.,IOI Loders Croklaan Bv | Overman P.,IOI Loders Croklaan Bv
European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology | Year: 2015

Currently, there are three official AOCS indirect methods for the detection and quantification of 2- and 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol-(2-MCPDe/3-MCPDe) and glycidyl esters (GE). The complete analysis for methods which allow separate detection and quantification of these three analytes is time consuming (>16h) and because of extensive manual sample preparation, the chances for error are significant and well-trained analysts are required for correct and reproducible results. We developed a new automated indirect method for sample preparation and quantification of these three analytes in oils and fats based on the relatively fast AOCS Official Method Cd 29c-13 (alkaline transesterification, differential method, no 2-MCPDe quantification). The method is adapted to ensure separate glycidol detection and correction for possible overestimation due to conversion of 3-MCPD to glycidol during alkaline transesterification using a carbon-13 labeled internal standard. Furthermore, the total analysis time is reduced significantly to less than 5h per series of four samples with minimal contact time. The exclusion of manual sample preparation reduces the need for dedicated well-trained lab technicians and eliminates variance between technicians. This makes the automated method a suitable tool to integrate in operational Quality Control services without specialized lab technicians. The method has been validated against AOCS Official Method Cd 29b-13 using different types of edible oils. Practical application: The use of an autosampler for sample preparation simplifies the parallel analysis of MCPD and glycidyl esters to a method which can be applied in any quality control or research laboratory without the need for multiple specialized technicians while optimizing sample throughput. It minimizes analysis errors by removing the human factor during sample preparation and allows for far shorter analysis times, allowing much faster optimization of production processes and food safety quality control practices. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Al-Darmaki N.,University of Birmingham | Lu T.,University of Birmingham | Al-Duri B.,University of Birmingham | Harris J.B.,IOI Loders Croklaan Bv | And 3 more authors.
Separation and Purification Technology | Year: 2011

Through the application of a dynamic method, the solubility of three lipid components with different volatilities and polarities was measured in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2). Binary systems of CO 2/squalene (SQ), CO2/oleic acid (OA) and CO 2/pseudo-component palm olein (PO) were measured at temperatures of 313, 333 and 353 K, and at a pressure range of 10-30 MPa. A ternary system of CO2/SQ/PO and a quaternary system of CO2/SQ/PO/OA were also investigated at 313 K and pressures of 10-25 MPa. Comparison of the ternary system with the binary system showed a decrease in the solubility of SQ, with a corresponding rise in the solubility of PO. In the quaternary system, the presence of OA decreased the selectivity of SQ. The data were correlated using Chrastil's equation in order to examine the general trend of solubility behaviour. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Al-Darmaki N.,University of Birmingham | Lu T.,University of Birmingham | Al-Duri B.,University of Birmingham | Harris J.B.,IOI Loders Croklaan Bv | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Supercritical Fluids | Year: 2012

Currently the extraction of valuable components from oils is of growing interest. Palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) is a by-product from palm oil refining process which contains valuable minor components. This work investigated the extraction and recovery of squalene using supercritical carbon dioxide (Sc-CO 2) as solvent from PFAD. The process has been carried out on a counter-current glass beads packed column with the dimensions of 11.45 mm internal diameter (I.D.) and 1.5 m of effective height. The effect of the experiment conditions on the squalene purity and recovery has been studied. The pressure and temperature were the operating conditions investigated and they varied from 10 to 20 MPa and 313 to 353 K, respectively. Squalene and free fatty acids (FFA) content in the extract increased, and triglycerides content decreased during most of the fractionation runs. Longitudinal thermal gradient profiles along the column was investigated for further recovery of squalene from PFAD, results showed the highest squalene recovery of more than 95% was reached and concentration of squalene was increased from 2 wt% in the feed to 16 wt% in the top product. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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