Bernardin Jr. V.L.,Lochmueller and Associates Inc. |
Swenson A.,Indianapolis Metropolitan Planning Organization |
Jiang Z.,Mid Ohio Regional Planning Commission |
Grovak M.,Lochmueller and Associates Inc.
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2011
Tours involving the use of public transit have always been viewed as less complex-including fewer stops and types of activities within a tour-than tours made by automobile or other modes. However, this traditional hypothesis was developed and supported by household travel surveys that included a relatively small subsample of transit users. The authors present a report on recent onboard transit ridership surveys in Indianapolis, Indiana, and Columbus, Ohio, that were used to collect information on the complexity of transit riders' tours. The results suggested that, contrary to common belief, transit tours were at least as complex as tours by other modes, on the basis of household surveys of the same regions. Results of the new surveys also revealed that income and vehicle ownership had a significant and opposite effect on the complexity of transit tours than they had on tours by other modes. Thus, the traditional hypothesis of simpler transit tours held for more affluent transit users but did not hold for a typical, less affluent transit user. Comparisons of the results of the onboard and household surveys further suggested that the traditional hypothesis of simple transit tours might have arisen from a bias toward more affluent riders in the subsample of household travel surveys that contained transit. The overall finding that transit tours may actually be more complex and involve more types of activities than previously thought has important implications for transit planning.
Newman J.P.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne |
Bernardin Jr. V.L.,Lochmueller and Associates Inc.
Transportation | Year: 2010
This paper seeks to explore the relationship between mode and destination choice in an integrated nested choice model. A fundamental argument can be made that in certain circumstances, the ordering of choices should be reversed from the usual sequence of destination choice preceding mode choice. This results in a travel demand model where travelers are more likely to change destinations than to change transportation modes. For small and medium size urban areas, particularly in the United States, with less well developed public transit systems that draw few choice riders, this assumption makes much more sense than the traditional modeling assumptions. The models used in the new travel modeling system developed for Knoxville, Tennessee utilize this reversed ordering, with generally good results, which required no external tinkering in the logsum parameters. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Kutschke W.,URS Corporation |
Conner G.,Lochmueller and Associates Inc. |
Krothe J.,Hydrogeology Inc.
Geotechnical Special Publication | Year: 2014
Interstate 69 is currently the largest new interstate highway construction project in the United States and is located in southwest Indiana. Twenty-three miles of the interstate traverses karst terrain consisting of sinkholes, swallets, caves, and sinking streams. Geologic and hydrogeologic mapping beyond the conventional geotechnical test boring investigations were required to determine karst treatments. Environmental and water resources were additional concerns for this environmentally sensitive karst system. Bedrock structure and stratigraphy for the karst aquifers were essential for evaluating a variety of mapped and buried karst features across multiple and transitioning physiographic areas. Characterization of the karst aquifer was essential to understanding the hydrology of mapped and unknown karst features. The upward extending cave stream or karst flowpath is better understood knowing its stratigraphic interval and interpretation of hydrogeologic mapping. Results from dye trace studies assisted in developing engineering solutions and determining the environmental impacts of roadway construction. Dye trace injection sites included sinkholes, sinking streams, and karst voids. Additionally, some fractures encountered during geotechnical borings were also injected. Geotechnical engineering efforts addressed the basic principle regarding engineering in karst, which is recognizing that water drives the karst process. A significant aspect for deterring sinkhole development is understanding and controlling surface and subsurface water, as evidenced by case histories. Applying these concepts, engineering solutions consisted of an aggregate cap to allow water flow in a sinkhole but minimize sediment transport, a concrete cap to minimize water infiltration into the sinkhole, and the use of geomembrane liners to minimize surface water infiltration into known areas of concern. © 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.
Bernardin V.,Lochmueller and Associates Inc. |
Grovak M.,Lochmueller and Associates Inc. |
Miquel R.,Cdm Smith
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2012
The methodology and the results pertain to developing a carbon footprint from a feasibility study for the addition of dedicated truck lanes to I-70 in Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, and Ohio. A complete method is provided for carbon accounting in roadway infrastructure projects by integrating both greenhouse gases from vehicle emissions and embodied carbon from the construction and maintenance of the facility. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's MOVES model was used to estimate vehicle emissions, with off-model adjustments for hypothetical higher-productivity vehicles (HPVs) (longer or heavier trucks). Embodied carbon was estimated per unit of construction activity and material based on the quantities in the construction cost estimates. The results confirmed the importance of a holistic approach that incorporated both vehicle emissions and construction and maintenance. For some scenarios, embodied carbon from construction and maintenance offset operational benefits from congestion relief. In other scenarios, especially those with allow-ances for HPVs (such as longer double-trailer or triple-trailer trucks), decreases in vehicle emissions far outweighed emissions from construction and maintenance. Under the proper circumstances, dedicated truck lanes could be an infrastructure solution that would decrease the carbon footprint of freight transportation, but a true reckoning of their net carbon impact can be given only by incorporating embodied carbon.
Bernardin Jr. V.L.,Lochmueller and Associates Inc. |
Conger M.,Knoxville Regional Transportation Planning Organization
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2010
This paper presents an overview of a new architecture for travel demand forecasting models. The new hybrid accessibility-based models are neither traditional trip-based models nor standard activity-based simulation models. Instead, they are a blend of aggregate and disaggregate component models offering much of the sensitivity typical of activity-based models but with more modest development and application costs. This paper presents results from the first full application of the new model design. It documents the experience of the Knoxville (Tennessee) Regional Transportation Planning Organization from the data collection and visioning stage to the stage of investing time and resources to develop the new model. Ultimately, some basic comparisons are made between the new hybrid model and the previous trip-based model. Some key innovations in the new model design are highlighted, making special note of added sensitivity to planning and policy variables. The paper also reports findings related to the effects of residence location on travelers' willingness to travel and the effect of psychological barriers such as river crossings and county lines on stop location choice.