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Tanaka R.,National Fisheries University | Naiki K.,Iwate Fisheries Technology Center | Tsuji K.,Local Independent Administrative Agency Hokkaido Research Organization | Nomata H.,Local Independent Administrative Agency Hokkaido Research Organization | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Food Processing and Preservation | Year: 2013

Skinless fillets were prepared from Pacific saury Cololabis saira of varying degrees of freshness and then stored at -20 and -40C for 12 months to investigate the effects of lipid oxidation on quality deterioration. Peroxide value and 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal levels increased with storage temperature (-40<-20C) and corresponded with freshness. Peroxide value and 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal levels increased remarkably in frozen-thawed Pacific saury skinless fillets in comparison with raw Pacific saury; vitamin E was reduced for only 3 months. Lipid oxidation was inhibited when antioxitant-treated skinless fillets were stored at -20C for 12 months, immersed in 0.8% vitamin E or packed with an oxygen absorber. The 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal content was strongly correlated with propanal, a decomposition product of lipid oxidation that yields a fishy odor. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Iwata N.,Agricultural Research Institute | Shinada H.,Local Independent Administrative Agency Hokkaido Research Organization | Kiuchi H.,Local Independent Administrative Agency Hokkaido Research Organization | Sato T.,Local Independent Administrative Agency Hokkaido Research Organization | And 2 more authors.
Breeding Science | Year: 2010

Low-temperature is one of the most common environmental stresses that affect plant growth and development and places a major limit on plant productivity. Tolerance to low-temperature is an important objective of rice breeding programs in temperate areas and at high altitudes in tropical and sub-tropical areas. Vigorous rice growth during the seedling stage at low-temperature is an important characteristic for stable seedling establishment (SES) in direct seeding methods, in which rice is sown directly into a flooded field. The aim of this study was to identify QTLs controlling SES using 3 mapping populations of backcrossed inbred lines (BILs) with Arroz Da Terra and Italica Livorno as the donor parents. SES was evaluated by a field evaluation system in this study, which is used in current rice breeding programs because of the complexity of environmental conditions in SES in rice cultivation in a paddy field. A total of 9 chromosomal regions for SES were identified, which explained 10.9% to 25.6% of total phenotypic variation. For all of QTLs except for qSES5-2, alleles from the donor parents increased phenotypic values. These QTLs should be useful for the improvement of SES in rice breeding programs in low-temperature regions.


Shinada H.,Local Independent Administrative Agency Hokkaido Research Organization | Yamamoto T.,Applied Genomics | Yamamoto E.,Applied Genomics | Hori K.,Applied Genomics | And 3 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2014

Key message: The rice local population was clearly differentiated into six groups over the 100-year history of rice breeding programs in the northern limit of rice cultivation over the world. Genetic improvements in plant breeding programs in local regions have led to the development of new cultivars with specific agronomic traits under environmental conditions and generated the unique genetic structures of local populations. Understanding historical changes in genome structures and phenotypic characteristics within local populations may be useful for identifying profitable genes and/or genetic resources and the creation of new gene combinations in plant breeding programs. In the present study, historical changes were elucidated in genome structures and phenotypic characteristics during 100-year rice breeding programs in Hokkaido, the northern limit of rice cultivation in the world. We selected 63 rice cultivars to represent the historical diversity of this local population from landraces to the current breeding lines. The results of the phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that these cultivars clearly differentiated into six groups over the history of rice breeding programs. Significant differences among these groups were detected in five of the seven traits, indicating that the differentiation of the Hokkaido rice population into these groups was correlated with these phenotypic changes. These results demonstrated that breeding practices in Hokkaido have created new genetic structures for adaptability to specific environmental conditions and breeding objectives. They also provide a new strategy for rice breeding programs in which such unique genes in local populations in the world can explore the genetic potentials of the local populations. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Shinada H.,Local Independent Administrative Agency Hokkaido Research Organization | Iwata N.,Agricultural Research Institute | Sato T.,Local Independent Administrative Agency Hokkaido Research Organization | Fujino K.,Agricultural Research Institute | Fujino K.,Japan National Agricultural Research Center
Breeding Science | Year: 2013

Cold temperature during the reproductive phase leads to seed sterility, which reduces yield and decreases the grain quality of rice. The fertilization stage, ranging from pollen maturation to the completion of fertilization, is sensitive to unsuitable temperature. Improving cold tolerance at the fertilization stage (CTF) is an important objective of rice breeding program in cold temperature areas. In this study, we characterized fertilization behavior under cold temperature to define the phenotype of CTF and identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for CTF. A wide variation in CTF levels has been identified among local cultivars in Hokkaido, which is one of the most northern regions for rice cultivation in the world. Clear varietal differences in pollen germination, and pollen tube elongation due to cold temperature have been observed. These differences may confer a degree of CTF among this population. We conducted QTL analysis for CTF using 120 backcrossed inbred lines derived from a cross between Eikei88223 (vigorous CTF) and Suisei (very weak CTF). Three QTLs for CTF were identified. A clear effect by QTL, qCTF7, for increasing the level of CTF was validated using advanced progeny. These results will facilitate marker-assist selection for desirable QTLs for CTF in rice breeding program.


PubMed | Local Independent Administrative Agency Hokkaido Research Organization, Agricultural Research Institute and Japan National Agricultural Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Breeding science | Year: 2014

Vigorous cold tolerance at the fertilization stage (CTF) is a very important characteristic for stable rice production in cold temperature conditions. Because CTF is a quantitatively inherited trait, pyramiding quantitative trait loci (QTLs) using marker-assisted selection (MAS) is effective for improving CTF levels in rice breeding programs. We previously identified three QTLs controlling CTF, qCTF7, qCTF8 and qCTF12, using backcrossed inbred lines derived from a cross between rice cultivar Eikei88223 (vigorous CTF) and Suisei (very weak CTF). However, pyramiding of these QTLs for the application of MAS in practical rice breeding programs have not yet been elucidated. In this study, we examined the effect of pyramiding QTLs for improvement of CTF level using eight possible genotype classes from the 152 F3 population derived from a cross between Eikei88223 and Suisei. Increasing of CTF levels in combinations between qCTF7 and qCTF12 and between qCTF8 and qCTF12 were detected. Furthermore, we compared the haplotype pattern around the QTLs for CTF among the rice cultivars from Hokkaido. These results are useful for improvement of new cultivars with high CTF levels using MAS and identification of genetic resources with the novel QTL(s) for CTF.


PubMed | Local Independent Administrative Agency Hokkaido Research Organization, Applied Genomics and Japan National Agricultural Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Breeding science | Year: 2015

Plant breeding programs aim to develop cultivars with high adaptability to the specific conditions in a local region. As a result, unique genes and gene combinations have been accumulated in local elite breeding populations during the long history of plant breeding. Genetic analyses on such genes and combinations may be useful for developing new cultivars with more-desirable agronomic traits. Here, we attempted to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for rice blast resistance (BR) using a local breeding rice population from Hokkaido, Japan. Using genotyping data on single nucleotide polymorphisms and simple sequence repeat markers distributed throughout the whole genomic region, we detected genetic regions associated with phenotypic variation in BR by a genome-wide association mapping study (GWAS). An additional association analysis using other breeding cultivars verified the effect and inheritance of the associated region. Furthermore, the existence of a gene for BR in the associated region was confirmed by QTL mapping. The results from these studies enabled us to estimate potential of the Hokkaido rice population as a gene pool for improving BR. The results of this study could be useful for developing novel cultivars with vigorous BR in rice breeding programs.


Sato T.,Local Independent Administrative Agency Hokkaido Research Organization | Hiyane A.,Iwate University
Nihon Ringakkai Shi/Journal of the Japanese Forestry Society | Year: 2012

A questionnaire survey was conducted to evaluate the demand of welfare institutions, for persons with disabilities, in Hokkaido for leisure activities in forests. This was done in order to obtain information on the demand for leisure activities in forests. Overall, the welfare institutions for persons with disabilities indicated their great interest in conducting leisure activities in forests. Many institutions chose the forest as a leisure destination. Furthermore, many requested for the improvement of facilities such as rest-rooms and pathways to allow for easy access by persons with disabilities. The result of the chi-square test indicated that institutions that did not demand for leisure activities in forests cited the difficult conditions as a reason. While institutions that catered to persons with physical and multiple disabilities requested for the improvement of facilities, those that catered to persons with mental disabilities requested for an enhanced forest experience program. With the wide acceptance of the normalization approach, the promotion of disabled persons' social participation through leisure activities, and the spread of information with regard to the effects of forest relaxation, welfare institutions for persons with disabilities expect to see an increase in leisure activities in forests. In the future, the hardware and software required for the creation of a forest recreation space need to be improved, and people concerned with both welfare and forestry should hold constant discussions to promote forest leisure activities among persons with disabilities.


Nakata M.,Tokyo University of Agriculture | Myoda T.,Tokyo University of Agriculture | Wakita Y.,Local Independent Administrative Agency Hokkaido Research Organization | Sato T.,Local Independent Administrative Agency Hokkaido Research Organization | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Oleo Science | Year: 2013

Aromatic components in the essential oil prepared from the leaves of cultivated Myrica gale var. tomentosa were compared with those from oil derived wild plants by using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). We found that essential oils from both the wild and cultivated plants contained similar aromatic components such as β-elemenone, selina 3,7(11)-diene, myrcene, limonene, cymene, 1,8-cineole, and β-pinene, but the content ratio of the oil was significantly different, which might yield differences in the aromatic properties. The aroma impact components of the essential oils were also determined using GC/MS-Olfactometry (GC/MS-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis. Eight aromatic compounds, including linalool, limonene, and 1,8-cineole, were shown to contribute to the aromatic properties of cultivated M. gale var. tomentosa. The strongest aromatic note was defined as linalool, followed by limonene, 1,8-cineole, and β-elemenone. The essential oil, ethanol (EtOH), 1,3-butylene glycol (BG), and 1,3-propanediol (PD) extracts prepared from the leaves of cultivated M. gale var. tomentosa also showed antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, that is, they demonstrated scavenger activity against hydroxyl and superoxide radicals in the aqueous phase, and showed inhibitory effects on lipid peroxidation. The essential oil extracts also exhibited antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria, with the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration value against Bacillus subtilis. In conclusion, the essential oil and solvent extracts from cultivated M. gala var. tomentosa have a potential for utilization as food and cosmetic ingredients. ©2013 by Japan Oil Chemists' Society.


Takano S.,Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine | Matsuda S.,Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine | Kinoshita N.,Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine | Shimoda N.,Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2014

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertions–deletions (InDels) are valuable molecular markers for molecular breeding among genetically closely related cultivars. Rice (Oryza sativa L. subsp. japonica) cultivars grown in Hokkaido (45–42°N), the northernmost region of rice paddy cultivation in Japan, have been bred for over 100 years for adaptation to low summer temperatures together with high yield and good eating quality. In this study, for 10 closely related rice cultivars released in Hokkaido and cultivar Koshihikari, we identified genome-wide SNPs and InDels by next-generation sequencing. More than 29 million reads from the Hokkaido cultivars, each 101 nucleotides long, were uniquely mapped to the Nipponbare reference genome. The average of the total nucleotide length of all uniquely mapped reads corresponded to 10.9 times (3,978 Mb with genome coverage of 90.7 %) the Nipponbare reference genome. An average of 99,955 putative SNPs (1.8 times the number in Koshihikari) and 14,617 putative InDels (also 1.8 times the number in Koshihikari) were detected in Hokkaido cultivars relative to the Nipponbare genome, which enabled analyses of the inheritance of pedigree haplotypes of four cultivars, SNPs and InDels among closely related Hokkaido cultivars, and haplotype blocks unique to Hokkaido cultivars. The comprehensive SNP and InDel data provide DNA marker resources and will facilitate quantitative trait locus analysis of biparental mapping of very closely related Hokkaido cultivars. Furthermore, the haplotype blocks unique to Hokkaido cultivars represent ideal genetic regions for improvement of cultivars to be grown near the northern and southern limits of rice cultivation. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


PubMed | Local Independent Administrative Agency Hokkaido Research Organization
Type: Historical Article | Journal: TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik | Year: 2014

The rice local population was clearly differentiated into six groups over the 100-year history of rice breeding programs in the northern limit of rice cultivation over the world. Genetic improvements in plant breeding programs in local regions have led to the development of new cultivars with specific agronomic traits under environmental conditions and generated the unique genetic structures of local populations. Understanding historical changes in genome structures and phenotypic characteristics within local populations may be useful for identifying profitable genes and/or genetic resources and the creation of new gene combinations in plant breeding programs. In the present study, historical changes were elucidated in genome structures and phenotypic characteristics during 100-year rice breeding programs in Hokkaido, the northern limit of rice cultivation in the world. We selected 63 rice cultivars to represent the historical diversity of this local population from landraces to the current breeding lines. The results of the phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that these cultivars clearly differentiated into six groups over the history of rice breeding programs. Significant differences among these groups were detected in five of the seven traits, indicating that the differentiation of the Hokkaido rice population into these groups was correlated with these phenotypic changes. These results demonstrated that breeding practices in Hokkaido have created new genetic structures for adaptability to specific environmental conditions and breeding objectives. They also provide a new strategy for rice breeding programs in which such unique genes in local populations in the world can explore the genetic potentials of the local populations.

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