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Lee J.-S.,Hokkaido University | Oka K.,Hokkaido University | Watanabe O.,Local Independent Administrative Agency | Hara H.,Hokkaido University | Ishizuka S.,Hokkaido University
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

We evaluated the effects of seven mushroom extracts (Grifola frondosa, Pholiota nameko, Panellus serotinus, Hypsizygus marmoreus, Pleurotus cornucopiae, Armillaria mellea, and Flammulina velutipes) on cytotoxic activity and cytokine production of lamina propria leukocytes (LPLs) isolated from rat small (S) and large (L) intestinal mucosa. Boiling water extracts from seven species of mushrooms showed no direct cytotoxicity against the YAC-1 target cells. However, prominent increases of cytotoxicity were observed in S- and L-LPLs co-cultured with P. serotinus extract. Cytokine production (TNFα, IFNγ, IL-12 p70, and IL-4) of S- and L-LPLs was stimulated in response to P. cornucopiae extract. Mushroom extracts contributed to target cell adhesion and/or cytokine production in the effector cells. The promotion of cytotoxic activity in S- and L-LPLs was not necessarily related to β-glucan content of the mushroom. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Miura M.,Kitami Institute of Technology | Seo T.,Kitami Institute of Technology | Shimotori Y.,Kitami Institute of Technology | Aoyama M.,Kitami Institute of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Holzforschung | Year: 2013

A sugar solution containing 31 g l-1 xylose was prepared from the culm of Sasa kurilensis by hydrolysis with 2% sulfuric acid with a liquor-to-solid ratio of 6 (g g-1) at 121C for 1 h. During acid hydrolysis, also some byproducts were generated, such as acetic acid, furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfral, and low molecular weight phenolics, which inhibit bioconversion of xylose to xylitol. Except for acetic acid, these inhibitors were successfully removed from the hydrolysate by contacting with a steam-Activated charcoal (15 g l-1 dose) for 24 h. Bioconversion of the detoxified hydrolysate to xylitol by the yeast, Candida magnoliae, was investigated under various microaerobic conditions. The oxygen transfer rate (OTR) varied from 8.4 to 27.6 mmol-O2 l-1 h-1.The maximum xylitol yield (0.62 g-xylitol g-xylose-1) was attained at the OTR of 1.2 mmol-O2 l-1 h-1. An additional increase in the OTR brought about cell growth, which consumed xylose. A proper control of the oxygen supply is necessary to produce efficiently xylitol from the culm hydrolysate. Source

Shinada H.,Local Independent Administrative Agency Hokkaido Research Organization | Shinada H.,Local Independent Administrative Agency | Iwata N.,Agricultural Research Institute | Sato T.,Local Independent Administrative Agency Hokkaido Research Organization | Fujino K.,Japan National Agricultural Research Center
Breeding Science | Year: 2013

Vigorous cold tolerance at the fertilization stage (CTF) is a very important characteristic for stable rice production in cold temperature conditions. Because CTF is a quantitatively inherited trait, pyramiding quantitative trait loci (QTLs) using marker-assisted selection (MAS) is effective for improving CTF levels in rice breeding programs. We previously identified three QTLs controlling CTF, qCTF7, qCTF8 and qCTF12, using backcrossed inbred lines derived from a cross between rice cultivar Eikei88223 (vigorous CTF) and Suisei (very weak CTF). However, pyramiding of these QTLs for the application of MAS in practical rice breeding programs have not yet been elucidated. In this study, we examined the effect of pyramiding QTLs for improvement of CTF level using eight possible genotype classes from the 152 F3 population derived from a cross between Eikei88223 and Suisei. Increasing of CTF levels in combinations between qCTF7 and qCTF12 and between qCTF8 and qCTF12 were detected. Furthermore, we compared the haplotype pattern around the QTLs for CTF among the rice cultivars from Hokkaido. These results are useful for improvement of new cultivars with high CTF levels using MAS and identification of genetic resources with the novel QTL(s) for CTF. Source

Local Independent Administrative Agency | Date: 2014-07-10

The present invention provides a method and system using a melting filter medium for separating a mixture (e.g., a mixture of an aqueous solution and either or both of oil and solids immiscible in the aqueous solution) to be separated. The mixture is separated into a liquid passing through the filter layer of the filter medium and a captured material captured in the filter layer. The filter medium and the captured material are separated by melting the filter medium.

Zhou H.,Center for Promotion of Clinical Investigation | Mori S.,Center for Promotion of Clinical Investigation | Ishizaki T.,Tokyo Metropolitan University | Tanaka M.,Tokyo Metropolitan University | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism | Year: 2015

A genetic risk score (GRS) was developed for predicting fracture risk based on lifetime prevalence of femoral fractures in 924 consecutive autopsies of Japanese males. A total of 922 non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in 62 osteoporosis susceptibility genes were genotyped and evaluated for their association with the prevalence of femoral fracture in autopsy cases. GRS values were calculated as the sum of risk allele counts (unweighted GRS) or the sum of weighted scores estimated from logistic regression coefficients (weighted GRS). Five SNPs (α-ʟ-iduronidase rs3755955, C7orf58 rs190543052, homeobox C4 rs75256744, G patch domain-containing gene 1 rs2287679, and Werner syndrome rs2230009) showed a significant association (P < 0.05) with the prevalence of femoral fracture in 924 male subjects. Both the unweighted and weighted GRS adequately predicted fracture prevalence; areas under receiver-operating characteristic curves were 0.750 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.660–0.840] and 0.770 (95 % CI 0.681–0.859), respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds ratio (OR) for the association between fracture prevalence and unweighted GRS ≥3 (n = 124) was 8.39 (95 % CI 4.22–16.69, P < 0.001) relative to a score <3 (n = 797). Likewise, the OR for a weighted GRS of 6–15 (n = 135) was 7.73 (95 % CI 3.89–15.36, P < 0.001) relative to scores of 0–5 (n = 786). The GRS based on risk allele profiles of the five SNPs could help identify at-risk individuals and enable implementation of preventive measures for femoral fracture. © 2015 The Japanese Society for Bone and Mineral Research and Springer Japan Source

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