Koga S.,Fukuoka University |
Kanayama K.,Kitami Institute of Technology |
Tsuchihashi H.,Local Independent Administrative Agency |
Baba H.,Kitami Institute of Technology |
Sugawara T.,Marusho giken Co.
Energy Procedia | Year: 2014
Two sorts of lumber drying house covered by a composite surface consisting of three layer transparent films and a carbon-fibre sheet (CF-sheet; looks like a semi-opaque) were invented and developed. One of them was built in Ashoro-cho, the eastern part of Hokkaido, Japan (the first proving site), and the other was built in Asahikawa-shi, the central part of Hokkaido (the second proving site). The dimension of each drying houses is a frontage of 4.5 m, depth of 5.0 m and height of 3.4 m (the 1st site) and the same frontage and depth as the former, but height of 3.8 m (the 2nd site), respectively. Two types of models of the drying house (East-West type and South-North-type) were desinged. The former is shaped like a half Quonset hut and the latter a just Quonset hut. All of the surfaces including the roof and walls except for a north wall of both models are covered by a composite surface. The composite surface is specially consisted by a triple transparent film from upper side and a CF-sheet to bottom side between which there are a few space of air layers. As a result of mutual effect of a spectral radiation properties of the films and the CF-sheet, a total solar radiation incident upon the drying house with cubic body composed of multi-surface from all the sky globally, can be collected into the house as solar rays volumetrically, converted into infrared radiation and trapped inside the drying house as solar heat passively, without any electric power. Moreover, the moist air inside the house being evaporated when drying green lumber can be naturally exhausted through two insulated cylinders (chimney) outside the drying house according to a principle of the thermo-siphon. From these reasons, "An opaque solar lumber drying house covered by a composite surface consisting of a triple-transparent film and a CF-sheet" could be called "A fully passive solar lumber drying house" in other word.In this paper, after explained the principle of drying mechanism due to solar radiation and heat rays, theexperimental procedures and the results at the proving test, on a board-larch lumber at the 1st proving site and a boxed heart squares-larch lumber for pillar material at the 2nd proving site, were described and discussed thoroughly. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Miura M.,Kitami Institute of Technology |
Seo T.,Kitami Institute of Technology |
Shimotori Y.,Kitami Institute of Technology |
Aoyama M.,Kitami Institute of Technology |
And 2 more authors.
Holzforschung | Year: 2013
A sugar solution containing 31 g l-1 xylose was prepared from the culm of Sasa kurilensis by hydrolysis with 2% sulfuric acid with a liquor-to-solid ratio of 6 (g g-1) at 121C for 1 h. During acid hydrolysis, also some byproducts were generated, such as acetic acid, furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfral, and low molecular weight phenolics, which inhibit bioconversion of xylose to xylitol. Except for acetic acid, these inhibitors were successfully removed from the hydrolysate by contacting with a steam-Activated charcoal (15 g l-1 dose) for 24 h. Bioconversion of the detoxified hydrolysate to xylitol by the yeast, Candida magnoliae, was investigated under various microaerobic conditions. The oxygen transfer rate (OTR) varied from 8.4 to 27.6 mmol-O2 l-1 h-1.The maximum xylitol yield (0.62 g-xylitol g-xylose-1) was attained at the OTR of 1.2 mmol-O2 l-1 h-1. An additional increase in the OTR brought about cell growth, which consumed xylose. A proper control of the oxygen supply is necessary to produce efficiently xylitol from the culm hydrolysate.
PubMed | Hakodate Junior College, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Local Independent Administrative Agency, University of Tokyo and Hokkaido University
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2016
Gut microbiome shapes various aspects of a hosts physiology, but these functions in aquatic animal hosts have yet to be fully investigated. The sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus Selenka is one such example. The large growth gap in their body size has delayed the development of intensive aquaculture, nevertheless the species is in urgent need of conservation. To understand possible contributions of the gut microbiome to its hosts growth, individual fecal microbiome comparisons were performed. High-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing revealed significantly different microbiota in larger and smaller individuals; Rhodobacterales in particular was the most significantly abundant bacterial group in the larger specimens. Further shotgun metagenome of representative samples revealed a significant abundance of microbiome retaining polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) metabolism genes in the largest individual. The PHB metabolism reads were potentially derived from Rhodobacterales. These results imply a possible link between microbial PHB producers and potential growth promotion in Deuterostomia marine invertebrates.
PubMed | Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo Metropolitan Geriatric Hospital, Jichi Medical University, Mie University and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of bone and mineral metabolism | Year: 2016
A genetic risk score (GRS) was developed for predicting fracture risk based on lifetime prevalence of femoral fractures in 924 consecutive autopsies of Japanese males. A total of 922 non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in 62 osteoporosis susceptibility genes were genotyped and evaluated for their association with the prevalence of femoral fracture in autopsy cases. GRS values were calculated as the sum of risk allele counts (unweighted GRS) or the sum of weighted scores estimated from logistic regression coefficients (weighted GRS). Five SNPs (--iduronidase rs3755955, C7orf58 rs190543052, homeobox C4 rs75256744, G patch domain-containing gene 1 rs2287679, and Werner syndrome rs2230009) showed a significant association (P<0.05) with the prevalence of femoral fracture in 924 male subjects. Both the unweighted and weighted GRS adequately predicted fracture prevalence; areas under receiver-operating characteristic curves were 0.750 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.660-0.840] and 0.770 (95% CI 0.681-0.859), respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds ratio (OR) for the association between fracture prevalence and unweighted GRS 3 (n=124) was 8.39 (95% CI 4.22-16.69, P<0.001) relative to a score <3 (n=797). Likewise, the OR for a weighted GRS of 6-15 (n=135) was 7.73 (95% CI 3.89-15.36, P<0.001) relative to scores of 0-5 (n=786). The GRS based on risk allele profiles of the five SNPs could help identify at-risk individuals and enable implementation of preventive measures for femoral fracture.
Shinada H.,Local Independent Administrative Agency Hokkaido Research Organization |
Shinada H.,Local Independent Administrative Agency |
Iwata N.,Agricultural Research Institute |
Sato T.,Local Independent Administrative Agency Hokkaido Research Organization |
Fujino K.,Japan National Agricultural Research Center
Breeding Science | Year: 2013
Vigorous cold tolerance at the fertilization stage (CTF) is a very important characteristic for stable rice production in cold temperature conditions. Because CTF is a quantitatively inherited trait, pyramiding quantitative trait loci (QTLs) using marker-assisted selection (MAS) is effective for improving CTF levels in rice breeding programs. We previously identified three QTLs controlling CTF, qCTF7, qCTF8 and qCTF12, using backcrossed inbred lines derived from a cross between rice cultivar Eikei88223 (vigorous CTF) and Suisei (very weak CTF). However, pyramiding of these QTLs for the application of MAS in practical rice breeding programs have not yet been elucidated. In this study, we examined the effect of pyramiding QTLs for improvement of CTF level using eight possible genotype classes from the 152 F3 population derived from a cross between Eikei88223 and Suisei. Increasing of CTF levels in combinations between qCTF7 and qCTF12 and between qCTF8 and qCTF12 were detected. Furthermore, we compared the haplotype pattern around the QTLs for CTF among the rice cultivars from Hokkaido. These results are useful for improvement of new cultivars with high CTF levels using MAS and identification of genetic resources with the novel QTL(s) for CTF.
Umemura A.,Niigata University |
Enomoto R.,Niigata University |
Kounosu T.,Niigata University |
Orihashi K.,Local Independent Administrative Agency |
And 2 more authors.
Nihon Enerugi Gakkaishi/Journal of the Japan Institute of Energy | Year: 2014
Along with Japanese cedar bark, fir bark and Japanese larch bark were pyrolyzed to estimate the possibility of utilizing these softwood barks as resources for fine chemicals by comparing the pyrolysis product compositions. The three softwood barks contained higher ash content and yielded lower amount of volatiles when compared with cedar heartwood. The major pyrolysis products from their barks were similar to those previously reported from softwood trunks. Levoglucosan was a major pyrolysis product formed from the three softwood barks, despite being a minor product from wood trunk pyrolysis. Therefore, softwood barks can be expected as a feedstock for production of levoglucosan. An increase in the moisture content in the cedar bark generated more pyrolysis products. This result indicates that softwood barks do not require drying prior to pyrolysis, which simplifies the pyrolysis system.
Lee J.-S.,Hokkaido University |
Oka K.,Hokkaido University |
Watanabe O.,Local Independent Administrative Agency |
Hara H.,Hokkaido University |
Ishizuka S.,Hokkaido University
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011
We evaluated the effects of seven mushroom extracts (Grifola frondosa, Pholiota nameko, Panellus serotinus, Hypsizygus marmoreus, Pleurotus cornucopiae, Armillaria mellea, and Flammulina velutipes) on cytotoxic activity and cytokine production of lamina propria leukocytes (LPLs) isolated from rat small (S) and large (L) intestinal mucosa. Boiling water extracts from seven species of mushrooms showed no direct cytotoxicity against the YAC-1 target cells. However, prominent increases of cytotoxicity were observed in S- and L-LPLs co-cultured with P. serotinus extract. Cytokine production (TNFα, IFNγ, IL-12 p70, and IL-4) of S- and L-LPLs was stimulated in response to P. cornucopiae extract. Mushroom extracts contributed to target cell adhesion and/or cytokine production in the effector cells. The promotion of cytotoxic activity in S- and L-LPLs was not necessarily related to β-glucan content of the mushroom. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ishikura Y.,Local Independent Administrative Agency |
Matsumoto K.,Local Independent Administrative Agency |
Ohashi Y.,Local Independent Administrative Agency
Journal of Wood Science | Year: 2012
This study investigated the densities, average width of annual rings, and partial compression stresses at 5 % strain perpendicular to the grain of air-dried wood specimens, which were continuous in the radial direction from the pith and were obtained from Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi) trees with different diameters at breast height in the same stand, to evaluate the radial variations in partial compression properties perpendicular to the grain. The air-dried densities of the wood increased with the distance from the pith. The average width of annual rings of the wood tended to decrease with increasing distance from the pith and those of medium- and large-diameter trees seemed to increase near the pith. The partial compression stresses at 5 % strain in the tangential loading direction tended to increase with the distance from the pith and with air-dried wood density. However, in the radial loading direction, this tendency was not observed. The partial compression stresses at 5 % strain in the radial loading direction tended to be low in wood with a small average width of annual rings. These results indicate that the factors affecting the radial variations in the partial compression stress at 5 % strain differ depending on the loading directions. © 2012 The Japan Wood Research Society.
Yoshida T.,Local Independent Administrative Agency |
Mitsui H.,Local Independent Administrative Agency |
Kanazawa N.,Local Independent Administrative Agency
Gastroenterological Endoscopy | Year: 2011
Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy (PEG) was carried out in a patient with Child-Pugh C hepatic cirrhosis complicated by esophageal varices. Measures against bleeding from the esophageal varices and leakage of ascitic fluid were required. PEG could be safely carried out using the direct method and fixing the gastric wall closer to the abdominal wall by the four-point fixation method. No postoperative bleeding or ascitic fluid leakage was found. Although the presence of ascites and portal hypertension are relative contraindications for PEG, PEG could be safely carried out by taking appropriate measures, even in the presence of such contraindications.
Local Independent Administrative Agency | Date: 2014-07-10
The present invention provides a method and system using a melting filter medium for separating a mixture (e.g., a mixture of an aqueous solution and either or both of oil and solids immiscible in the aqueous solution) to be separated. The mixture is separated into a liquid passing through the filter layer of the filter medium and a captured material captured in the filter layer. The filter medium and the captured material are separated by melting the filter medium.