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Reggio nell'Emilia, Italy

Malagoli C.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Crespi C.M.,University of California at Los Angeles | Rodolfi R.,Local Health Unit of Reggio Emilia | Signorelli C.,University of Parma | And 9 more authors.
Bioelectromagnetics | Year: 2012

The issue of adverse human health effects due to exposure to electromagnetic fields is still unclear, and congenital anomalies are among the outcomes that have been inconsistently associated with such exposure. We conducted a population-based, case-control study to examine the risk of congenital anomalies associated with maternal exposure to magnetic fields (MF) from high-voltage power lines during pregnancy in a community in northern Italy. We identified 228 cases of congenital malformations diagnosed in live births, stillbirths, and induced abortions among women living in the municipality of Reggio Emilia during the period 1998-2006, and a reference group of healthy newborns was matched for year of birth, maternal age, and hospital of birth. We identified maternal residence during early pregnancy and used Geographic Information System to determine whether the residences were within geocoded corridors with MF ≥0.1μT near high-voltage power lines, then calculated the relative risk (RR) of congenital anomalies associated with maternal exposure. One case and 5 control mothers were classified as exposed, and the RR associated with MF ≥0.1μT was 0.2 (95% CI: 0.0-2.0) after adjusting for maternal education. While small or moderate effects may have gone undetected due to low statistical power, the results of this study overall do not provide support for major effects of a teratogenic risk due to exposure to MF during early pregnancy. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Vinceti M.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Bonvicini F.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Bonvicini F.,Local Health Unit of Reggio Emilia | Rothman K.J.,RTI Health Solutions | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source | Year: 2010

Background. A community in northern Italy was previously reported to have an excess incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis among residents exposed to high levels of inorganic selenium in their drinking water. Methods. To assess the extent to which such association persisted in the decade following its initial observation, we conducted a population-based case-control study encompassing forty-one newly-diagnosed cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and eighty-two age- and sex-matched controls. We measured long-term intake of inorganic selenium along with other potentially neurotoxic trace elements. Results. We found that consumption of drinking water containing 1 g/l of inorganic selenium was associated with a relative risk for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis of 5.4 (95% confidence interval 1.1-26) after adjustment for confounding factors. Greater amounts of cumulative inorganic selenium intake were associated with progressively increasing effects, with a relative risk of 2.1 (95% confidence interval 0.5-9.1) for intermediate levels of cumulative intake and 6.4 (95% confidence interval 1.3-31) for high intake. Conclusion. Based on these results, coupled with other epidemiologic data and with findings from animal studies that show specific toxicity of the trace element on motor neurons, we hypothesize that dietary intake of inorganic selenium through drinking water increases the risk for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. © 2010 Vinceti et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Vinceti M.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Crespi C.M.,University of California at Los Angeles | Bonvicini F.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Bonvicini F.,Local Health Unit of Reggio Emilia | And 4 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2013

Results of recent epidemiologic studies suggest the need to reassess the safe upper limit in drinking water of selenium, a metalloid with both toxicological and nutritional properties. Observational and experimental human studies on health effects of organic selenium compounds consumed through diet or supplements, and of inorganic selenium consumed through drinking water, have shown that human toxicity may occur at much lower levels than previously surmised. Evidence indicates that the chemical form of selenium strongly influences its toxicity, and that its biological activity may differ in different species, emphasizing the importance of the few human studies on health effects of the specific selenium compounds found in drinking water. Epidemiologic studies that investigated the effects of selenate, an inorganic selenium species commonly found in drinking water, together with evidence of toxicity of inorganic selenium at low levels in from in vitro and animal studies, indicate that health risks may occur at exposures below the current European Union and World Health Organization upper limit and guideline of 10 and 40. μg/l, respectively, and suggest reduction to 1. μg/l in order to adequately protect human health. Although few drinking waters are currently known to have selenium concentrations exceeding this level, the public health importance of this issue should not be overlooked, and further epidemiologic research is critically needed in this area. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Malagoli C.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Fabbi S.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Teggi S.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Calzari M.,Local Health Unit of Reggio Emilia | And 7 more authors.
Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source | Year: 2010

Background. Some epidemiologic studies have suggested an association between electromagnetic field exposure induced by high voltage power lines and childhood leukemia, but null results have also been yielded and the possibility of bias due to unmeasured confounders has been suggested. Methods. We studied this relation in the Modena and Reggio Emilia municipalities of northern Italy, identifying the corridors along high voltage power lines with calculated magnetic field intensity in the 0.1-<0.2, 0.2-<0.4, and ≥0.4 microTesla ranges. We identified 64 cases of newly-diagnosed hematological malignancies in children aged <14 within these municipalities from 1986 to 2007, and we sampled four matched controls for each case, collecting information on historical residence and parental socioeconomic status of these subjects. Results. Relative risk of leukemia associated with antecedent residence in the area with exposure ≥0.1 microTesla was 3.2 (6.7 adjusting for socioeconomic status), but this estimate was statistically very unstable, its 95% confidence interval being 0.4-23.4, and no indication of a dose-response relation emerged. Relative risk for acute lymphoblastic leukemia was 5.3 (95% confidence interval 0.7-43.5), while there was no increased risk for the other hematological malignancies. Conclusions. Though the number of exposed children in this study was too low to allow firm conclusions, results were more suggestive of an excess risk of leukemia among exposed children than of a null relation. © 2010 Malagoli et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Trifiro G.,Messina University | Italiano D.,Messina University | Alibrandi A.,Messina University | Sini G.,Local Health Unit of Reggio Emilia | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy | Year: 2013

Background Natural disasters provoke an increase in mental and medical disorders in survivors. Monitoring drug prescription changes after natural disasters can provide an indirect evaluation of trauma impact in the population. Moreover, it could be useful to both identify risk categories that require special assistance and assess possible drug abuse ormisuse. Objective To assess the effects of earthquake that occurred onApril 6, 2009 on the use of antidepressant and antipsychotic drugs in the province of L'Aquila. Setting General population of L'Aquila and Caserta provinces from Southern Italy. Method In a retrospective, drug utilization study we identified all the persons who received at least one dispensing of antidepressant and/or antipsychotic drugs during the period April 1st, 2008-March 31st, 2010. Main outcome measure The monthly prevalence of use of these drugs, 1 year prior and after the date of earthquake in L'Aquila was compared between the two provinces, L'Aquila and Caserta. All the analyses were stratified by age groups, gender and drug classes. Results We observed an increase in the use of antipsychotic drugs and, to lesser extent, of antidepressant agents (mostly typicals and tryciclics, respectively) in the first 2 months after the earthquake in L'Aquila but not in Caserta. This increasewas almost two-fold higher inwomen older than 75 years. After the first 2 months fromthe earthquake, the use of antidepressants and antipsychotics was stabilized at the preearthquake levels in L'Aquila. Conclusion The earthquake determined a short-term increase in the use of antipsychotics (mostly haloperidol and promazine) and, to lesser extent, of antidepressants (i.e. tryciclics), especially in older women of L'Aquila. © Koninklijke Nederlandse Maatschappij ter bevordering der Pharmacie 2013.

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