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Mezzaroba N.,University of Trieste | Zorzet S.,University of Trieste | Secco E.,University of Trieste | Biffi S.,Institute for Maternal and Child Health IRCCS Burlo Garofolo | And 18 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Current B-cell disorder treatments take advantage of dose-intensive chemotherapy regimens and immunotherapy via use of monoclonal antibodies. Unfortunately, they may lead to insufficient tumor distribution of therapeutic agents, and often cause adverse effects on patients. In this contribution, we propose a novel therapeutic approach in which relatively high doses of Hydroxychloroquine and Chlorambucil were loaded into biodegradable nanoparticles coated with an anti-CD20 antibody. We demonstrate their ability to effectively target and internalize in tumor B-cells. Moreover, these nanoparticles were able to kill not only p53 mutated/deleted lymphoma cell lines expressing a low amount of CD20, but also circulating primary cells purified from chronic lymphocitic leukemia patients. Their safety was demonstrated in healthy mice, and their therapeutic effects in a new model of Burkitt's lymphoma. The latter serves as a prototype of an aggressive lympho-proliferative disease. In vitro and in vivo data showed the ability of anti-CD20 nanoparticles loaded with Hydroxychloroquine and Chlorambucil to increase tumor cell killing in comparison to free cytotoxic agents or Rituximab. These results shed light on the potential of anti-CD20 nanoparticles carrying Hydroxychloroquine and Chlorambucil for controlling a disseminated model of aggressive lymphoma, and lend credence to the idea of adopting this therapeutic approach for the treatment of B-cell disorders. © 2013 Mezzaroba et al.


Capolla S.,University of Trieste | Mezzaroba N.,University of Trieste | Zorzet S.,University of Trieste | Tripodo C.,University of Palermo | And 15 more authors.
Nano Research | Year: 2016

Current approaches for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have greatly improved the prognosis for survival, but some patients remain refractive to these therapeutic regimens. Hence, in addition to reducing the long-term sideeffects of therapeutics for all leukemia patients, there is an urgent need for novel therapeutic strategies for difficult-to-treat leukemia cases. Due to the cytotoxicity of drugs, the major challenge currently is to deliver the therapeutic agents to neoplastic cells while preserving the viability of non-malignant cells. In this study, we propose a therapeutic approach in which high doses of hydroxychloroquine and chlorambucil were loaded into biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles coated with an anti-CD20 antibody.We first demonstrated the ability of the nanoparticles to target and internalize in tumor B-cells. Moreover, these nanoparticles could kill not only p53-mutated/deleted leukemia cells expressing a low amount of CD20, but also circulating primary cells isolated from chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients. The safety of these nanoparticles was also demonstrated in healthy mice, and their therapeutic effects were shown in a new model of aggressive leukemia. These results showed that anti-CD20 nanoparticles containing hydroxychloroquine and chlorambucil can be effective in controlling aggressive leukemia and provided a rationale for adopting this approach for the treatment of other B-cell disorders. [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2015, Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Marin G.H.,Ministry of Health | Mansilla E.,Ministry of Health | Mezzaroba N.,University of Trieste | Zorzet S.,University of Trieste | And 12 more authors.
Current Clinical Pharmacology | Year: 2010

The aim of this study was to determine if Rituximab coated Biodegradable Nanoparticles (BNPs) loaded with Chlorambucil and Hydroxychloroquine could induce apoptosis of B-Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (B-CLL), MEC-1 and BJAB cells in vitro and evaluate their toxic and therapeutic effects on a Human/Mouse Model of Burkitt Lymphoma at an exploratory, proof of concept scale. We found that Rituximab-Chlorambucil-Hydroxychloroquine BNPs induce a decrease in cell viability of malignant B cells in a dose-dependent manner. The mediated cytotoxicity resulted from apoptosis, and was confirmed by monitoring the B-CLL cells after Annexin V/propidium iodide staining. Additional data revealed that these BNPs were non toxic for healthy animals, and had prolonged survival in this mice model of human lymphoma. © 2010 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.


Bernal G.M.,University of Chicago | LaRiviere M.J.,University of Chicago | Mansour N.,University of Chicago | Pytel P.,University of Chicago | And 10 more authors.
Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine | Year: 2014

A major obstacle to the management of malignant glioma is the inability to effectively deliver therapeutic agent to the tumor. In this study, we describe a polymeric nanoparticle vector that not only delivers viable therapeutic, but can also be tracked in vivo using MRI. Nanoparticles, produced by a non-emulsion technique, were fabricated to carry iron oxide within the shell and the chemotherapeutic agent, temozolomide (TMZ), as the payload. Nanoparticle properties were characterized and subsequently their endocytosis-mediated uptake by glioma cells was demonstrated. Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) can disperse nanoparticles through the rodent brain and their distribution is accurately visualized by MRI. Infusion of nanoparticles does not result in observable animal toxicity relative to control. CED of TMZ-bearing nanoparticles prolongs the survival of animals with intracranial xenografts compared to control. In conclusion, the described nanoparticle vector represents a unique multifunctional platform that can be used for image-guided treatment of malignant glioma. From the Clinical Editor: GBM remains one of the most notoriously treatment-unresponsive cancer types. In this study, a multifunctional nanoparticle-based temozolomide delivery system was demonstrated to possess enhanced treatment efficacy in a rodent xenograft GBM model, with the added benefit of MRI-based tracking via the incorporation of iron oxide as a T2* contrast material in the nanoparticles. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Capolla S.,University of Trieste | Garrovo C.,Institute for Maternal and Child Health IRCCS Burlo Garofolo | Zorzet S.,University of Trieste | Lorenzon A.,Animal care Unit | And 8 more authors.
International Journal of Nanomedicine | Year: 2015

The expectations of nanoparticle (NP)-based targeted drug delivery systems in cancer, when compared with convectional therapeutic methods, are greater efficacy and reduced drug side effects due to specific cellular-level interactions. However, there are conficting literature reports on enhanced tumor accumulation of targeted NPs, which is essential for translating their applications as improved drug-delivery systems and contrast agents in cancer imaging. In this study, we characterized biodegradable NPs conjugated with an anti-CD20 antibody for in vivo imaging and drug delivery onto tumor cells. NPs’ binding specificity mediated by anti-CD20 antibody was evaluated on MEC1 cells and chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients’ cells. The whole-body distribution of untargeted NPs and anti-CD20 NPs were compared by time-domain optical imaging in a localized human/mouse model of B-cell malignancy. These studies provided evidence that NPs’ functionalization by an anti-CD20 antibody improves tumor pharmacoki-netic profiles in vivo after systemic administration and increases in vivo imaging of tumor mass compared to non-targeted NPs. Together, drug delivery and imaging probe represents a promising theranostics tool for targeting B-cell malignancies. © 2015 Capolla et al.


Patent
LNK Chemsolutions, LLC | Date: 2012-03-08

A method of manufacturing a sturdy and pliable fibrous hemostatic dressing by making fibers that maximally expose surface area per unit weight of active ingredients as a means for aiding in the clot forming process and as a means of minimizing waste of active ingredients. The method uses a rotating object to spin off a liquid biocompatible fiber precursor, which is added at its center. Fibers formed then deposit on a collector located at a distance from the rotating object creating a fiber layer on the collector. An electrical potential difference is maintained between the rotating disk and the collector. Then, a liquid procoagulation species is introduced at the center of the rotating disk such that it spins off the rotating disk and coats the fibers.


Mansour N.M.,University of Chicago | Bernal G.M.,University of Chicago | Wu L.,University of Chicago | Crawley C.D.,University of Chicago | And 9 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2015

Temozolomide is used widely to treat malignant glioma, but the overall response to this agent is generally poor. Resistance to DNA-damaging drugs such as temozolomide has been related to the induction of antiapoptotic proteins. Specifically, the transcription factor NF-κB has been suggested to participate in promoting the survival of cells exposed to chemotherapy. To identify factors that modulate cytotoxicity in the setting of DNA damage, we used an unbiased strategy to examine the NF-κB-dependent expression profile induced by temozolomide. By this route, we defined the decoy receptor DcR1 as a temozolomide response gene induced by a mechanism relying upon p50/NF-κB1. A conserved NF-κB-binding sequence (κB-site) was identified in the proximal promoter and was demonstrated to be required for DcR1 induction by temozolomide. Loss-of-function and gain-of-function studies reveal that the atypical IkB protein, Bcl3, is also required for induction of DcR1 by temozolomide. Mechanistically, DcR1 attenuates temozolomide efficacy by blunting activation of the Fas receptor pathway in p53+/+ glioma cells. Intracranial xenograft studies show that DcR1 depletion in glioma cells enhances the efficacy of temozolomide. Taken together, our results show how DcR1 upregulation mediates temozolomide resistance and provide a rationale for DcR1 targeting as a strategy to sensitize gliomas to this widely used chemotherapy. © 2015 American Association for Cancer Research.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Office for Chemical and Biological Defense | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 70.00K | Year: 2010

In general, many biological and chemical agents affect the lungs directly or indirectly, even if the respiratory system is not the primary target organ of a military or terrorist attack. Both in the case of military and civilian attacks the lung can be one of the first organs affected by a chemical or biological agent. LNK Chemsolutions (LNK) with expertise in nanoparticle formulations and the University of Illinois Chicago with expertise in Acute Lung Injury (ALI) molecular biology and treatment modality development have teamed up to develop novel oral and inhalation formulation of targeted nanoparticles (NPs) containing siRNA and/or miRNA to improve the treatment of ALI unobtainable with current delivery systems.


PubMed | LNK Chemsolutions, LLC, University of Illinois at Chicago and University of Chicago
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cancer research | Year: 2015

Temozolomide is used widely to treat malignant glioma, but the overall response to this agent is generally poor. Resistance to DNA-damaging drugs such as temozolomide has been related to the induction of antiapoptotic proteins. Specifically, the transcription factor NF-B has been suggested to participate in promoting the survival of cells exposed to chemotherapy. To identify factors that modulate cytotoxicity in the setting of DNA damage, we used an unbiased strategy to examine the NF-B-dependent expression profile induced by temozolomide. By this route, we defined the decoy receptor DcR1 as a temozolomide response gene induced by a mechanism relying upon p50/NF-B1. A conserved NF-B-binding sequence (B-site) was identified in the proximal promoter and was demonstrated to be required for DcR1 induction by temozolomide. Loss-of-function and gain-of-function studies reveal that the atypical IB protein, Bcl3, is also required for induction of DcR1 by temozolomide. Mechanistically, DcR1 attenuates temozolomide efficacy by blunting activation of the Fas receptor pathway in p53(+/+) glioma cells. Intracranial xenograft studies show that DcR1 depletion in glioma cells enhances the efficacy of temozolomide. Taken together, our results show how DcR1 upregulation mediates temozolomide resistance and provide a rationale for DcR1 targeting as a strategy to sensitize gliomas to this widely used chemotherapy.

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