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McLean, VA, United States

Thompson T.R.,LMI
AIAA AVIATION 2014 -AIAA/3AF Aircraft Noise and Emissions Reduction Symposium | Year: 2014

We have developed a method to compare climate-related regulatory fees to airline direct operating costs. We estimate the percentage increase in costs due to such fees for different levels of the social cost of carbon, fuel prices, and non-fuel operating costs per seat hour. The motivation is to estimate likely impacts of climate-related fees on airline costs since this forms the basis for making a business case that airlines should invest in mitigation efforts that could avoid regulations. In essence, if the fee costs are higher than the mitigation investment, then the business case is in favor of such investment. Source

Thompson T.R.,LMI | Hullah P.,Experimental Center
AIAA AVIATION 2014 -AIAA/3AF Aircraft Noise and Emissions Reduction Symposium | Year: 2014

This work has developed an initial technique to describe climate-optimal trajectories and to allocate responsibilities to different actors contributing to their achievement. This is a step toward managing the operational process in such a way that flight-specific deviations from goals can be identified and linked to the actors best able to reduce such deviations. This technique is built upon a performance indicator that includes both CO2 and NOx, so the contribution of some non-CO2impacts is considered as part of the process1. Source

Miller R.,LMI | Cheyne J.,Optimize
Health Affairs | Year: 2011

In the next decade, at least twelve additional vaccines that target such diseases as typhoid, malaria, and dengue will become available to lower- and middle-income countries. These vaccines must travel along what are called supply chains, which include all personnel, systems, equipment, and activities involved in ensuring that vaccines are effectively delivered from the point of production to the people who need them. But for various reasons, supply chains are already strained in many developing countries, and the potential inability to distribute new vaccines will place lives at risk. Among the many steps needed to strengthen the global vaccine supply chain, we suggest that the international community pursue improved coordination between organizations that donate and ship vaccines and the host-country officials who receive and distribute the vaccines, as well as better training for supply-chain managers. © 2011 Project HOPE-The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc. Source

Jonassen R.,LMI | Pielke Jr. R.,University of Colorado at Boulder
Climatic Change | Year: 2011

Authors of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) received guidance on reporting understanding, certainty and/or confidence in findings using a common language, to better communicate with decision makers. However, a review of the IPCC conducted by the InterAcademy Council (2010) found that "the guidance was not consistently followed in AR4, leading to unnecessary errors . . . the guidance was often applied to statements that are so vague they cannot be falsified. In these cases the impression was often left, quite incorrectly, that a substantive finding was being presented." Our comprehensive and quantitative analysis of findings and associated uncertainty in the AR4 supports the IAC findings and suggests opportunities for improvement in future assessments. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

News Article
Site: http://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/category/solar

Nearly one-third of American adults live in a low- or lower-middle-cost housing area. And that number is growing as the middle class shrinks. Meanwhile, community solar programs are budding around the country. These programs are often promoted as a way to spread solar to those who can't host a system on their roof. But are they reaching lower-income customers who may want to participate? So far, very few programs specifically target this customer segment. And without a focused plan, lower-income customers won't get served by community solar. The Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC) is out with a new report that centers on spreading shared solar programs to a broader range of customers. What’s needed is a targeted approach -- borrowing successful approaches in other sectors -- that takes into account the specific challenges of serving the lower-and moderate-income (LMI) demographic. “Shared renewables are still a nascent market, and it’s now entering the next phase of growth,” said Sara Baldwin Auck, IREC’s regulatory program director. “The potential to reach a significant volume of customers is very real. That reality is spurring more people to figure out how to make programs work for LMI customers.” Financing is a central issue. Low-income residents often don’t have access to the financial resources to pay upfront costs or make monthly payments. Paying for renewable energy isn’t a priority. With a sizable risk of default or low enrollment, developers and financiers may be wary of investing in a project on their own to service these customers. One recommendation, which addresses both financing and programmatic hurdles, involves broadening the user pool. "For shared renewable energy facilities focused on serving LMI customers, developers may need to rely on another customer or group of customers to serve as 'anchor' participants in a facility, who can also serve to mitigate some of the credit and other financial issues faced by LMI customers," writes IREC. A shared solar program could include 40 percent of customers from the commercial and industrial sector, or a similar number of homeowners in the moderate- to upper-income bracket. These two groups bring better credit and payment histories, thus reducing risk. For example, the first phase of New York's community solar program requires 20 percent of customers to be low-income. That next step would be to create shared solar programs with more than half of participants in the LMI bracket. "The viability of a 60% LMI facility is inextricably tied to financing issues, however, and IREC emphasizes that these percentages will need to be adjusted on a program-by-program basis, depending on available incentives, financing tools and mechanisms, and other specific circumstances," concludes the report. Those financing tools include upfront incentives and loan programs to help customers defray costs. Developers and financiers may also require help, particularly if a majority of the subscribers are LMI earners. Incentives, tax breaks, and loan-loss reserve accounts to cover shortfalls could be used to encourage an expansion of the customer base. Another possibility is getting states to offer more attractive loans and interest rates. New York's green bank has awarded tens of millions of dollars in loans to companies offering low- to no-cost efficiency and solar options to homeowners in the state. These loans have encouraged banks to throw in many more millions for warehouse credit facilities to support projects serving this sector. "While the current project pipeline does not include any projects devoted to shared renewable energy facilities for LMI customers, the NY Green Bank could foreseeably serve as a source of capital for an LMI-serving shared renewable energy facility," writes IREC. Targeted incentives and loans are necessary to alleviate investor concerns. “If you don’t address the risk and offer creative financing mechanisms, you’re not likely to see this market segment scale,” Auck said. Outreach and marketing need to be taken into account as well. For many LMI customers, language, internet access and time are constraints. The combination of such factors can lead to a lack of awareness and understanding of programming options. They also feed into a skepticism about new offerings. "LMI customers may require specialized, culturally sensitive marketing, education, and outreach, both as far as the method used (e.g., language, medium, etc.) as well as the substance of the materials." In order to address this barrier, policymakers and regulators could design programs that leverage organizations and networks that already work with LMI residents. Partnering with an organization already working in the sector would engender trust. It would also cut down on inefficiencies in staffing and deploying marketing resources -- developers wouldn’t have to worry as much about administrative costs. Finally, partnerships would make participation less onerous. If a customer were deemed eligible through one assistance program, they could be deemed eligible for a shared solar program. The policy and financing suggestions made in the report already exist today. They just need to be applied to community solar, said Auck. “Many of the concepts and mechanisms are already in place and have been demonstrated to work,” she said. “The thing that’s needed is for policymakers and stakeholders to work together to coordinate those pieces. There isn’t the need to reinvent every wheel.”

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