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Le Touquet – Paris-Plage, France

Couvreux F.,Meteo - France | Hourdin F.,LMD IPSL | Rio C.,Meteo - France
Boundary-Layer Meteorology | Year: 2010

A conditional sampling based on the combination of a passive tracer emitted at the surface and thermodynamic variables is proposed to characterise organized structures in large-eddy simulations of cloud-free and cloudy boundary layers. The sampling is evaluated against more traditional sampling of dry thermals or clouds. It enables the characterization of convective updrafts from the surface to the top of the boundary layer (or the top of cumulus clouds), describing in particular the transition from the sub-cloud to the cloud layer, and retrieves plume characteristics, entrainment and detrainment rates, variances and fluxes. This sampling is used to analyze the contribution of boundary-layer thermals to vertical fluxes and variances. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Lorenz R.,University of New South Wales | Argueso D.,University of New South Wales | Donat M.G.,University of New South Wales | Pitman A.J.,University of New South Wales | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres | Year: 2016

We examine how soil moisture variability and trends affect the simulation of temperature and precipitation extremes in six global climate models using the experimental protocol of the Global Land-Atmosphere Coupling Experiment of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5 (GLACE-CMIP5). This protocol enables separate examinations of the influences of soil moisture variability and trends on the intensity, frequency, and duration of climate extremes by the end of the 21st century under a business-as-usual (Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5) emission scenario. Removing soil moisture variability significantly reduces temperature extremes over most continental surfaces, while wet precipitation extremes are enhanced in the tropics. Projected drying trends in soil moisture lead to increases in intensity, frequency, and duration of temperature extremes by the end of the 21st century. Wet precipitation extremes are decreased in the tropics with soil moisture trends in the simulations, while dry extremes are enhanced in some regions, in particular the Mediterranean and Australia. However, the ensemble results mask considerable differences in the soil moisture trends simulated by the six climate models. We find that the large differences between the models in soil moisture trends, which are related to an unknown combination of differences in atmospheric forcing (precipitation, net radiation), flux partitioning at the land surface, and how soil moisture is parameterized, imply considerable uncertainty in future changes in climate extremes. © 2015. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

Lucas A.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center | Rodriguez S.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center | Narteau C.,CNRS Paris Institute of Global Physics | Charnay B.,LMD IPSL | And 7 more authors.
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2014

Dune fields on Titan cover more than 17% of the moon's surface, constituting the largest known surface reservoir of organics. Their confinement to the equatorial belt, shape, and eastward direction of propagation offer crucial information regarding both the wind regime and sediment supply. Herein, we present a comprehensive analysis of Titan's dune orientations using automated detection techniques on nonlocal denoised radar images. By coupling a new dune growth mechanism with wind fields generated by climate modeling, we find that Titan's dunes grow by sediment transport on a nonmobile substratum. To be fully consistent with both the local crestline orientations and the eastward propagation of Titan's dunes, the sediment should be predominantly transported by strong eastward winds, most likely generated by equinoctial storms or occasional fast westerly gusts. Additionally, convergence of the meridional transport predicted in models can explain why Titan's dunes are confined within ±30° latitudes, where sediment fluxes converge. © 2014. American Geophysical Union.

Jam A.,LMD IPSL | Hourdin F.,LMD IPSL | Rio C.,LMD IPSL | Couvreux F.,Meteo - France
Boundary-Layer Meteorology | Year: 2013

We present a statistical cloud scheme based on the subgrid-scale distribution of the saturation deficit. When analyzed in large-eddy simulations (LES) of a typical cloudy convective boundary layer, this distribution is shown to be bimodal and reasonably well-fitted by a bi-Gaussian distribution. Thanks to a tracer-based conditional sampling of coherent structures of the convective boundary layer in LES, we demonstrate that one mode corresponds to plumes of buoyant air arising from the surface, and the second to their environment, both within the cloud and sub-cloud layers. According to this analysis, we propose a cloud scheme based on a bi-Gaussian distribution of the saturation deficit, which can be easily coupled with any mass-flux scheme that discriminates buoyant plumes from their environment. For that, the standard deviations of the two Gaussian modes are parametrized starting from the top-hat distribution of the subgrid-scale thermodynamic variables given by the mass-flux scheme. Single-column model simulations of continental and maritime case studies show that this approach allows us to capture the vertical and temporal variations of the cloud cover and liquid water. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Rio C.,Meteo - France | Hourdin F.,LMD IPSL | Couvreux F.,Meteo - France | Jam A.,LMD IPSL
Boundary-Layer Meteorology | Year: 2010

The conditional sampling of coherent structures in large-eddy simulations of the convective boundary layer (Couvreux et al. Boundary-layer Meteorol 134:441-458, 2010) is used to propose and evaluate formulations of fractional entrainment and detrainment rates for mass-flux schemes. The proposed formulations are physically-based and continuous from the surface to the top of clouds. Entrainment is related to the updraft vertical velocity divergence, while detrainment depends on the thermal vertical velocity, on buoyancy and on the moisture contrast between the mean plume and its environment. The proposed formulations are first directly evaluated in simulations of shallow clouds. They are then tested in single-column simulations with the thermal plume model, a mass-flux representation of boundary-layer thermals. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010.

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