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Kamenkovich I.,University of Florida | Garraffo Z.,IMSG at NOAA EMCCollege Park | Pennel R.,LMD IPSL | Fine R.A.,University of Florida
Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans | Year: 2017

This study examines the relative importance of the mean advection and mesoscale currents in the property exchange between the Southern Ocean mixed layer and downstream in the upper 2000 m; this exchange is referred to as ventilation. A new, highly efficient off-line tracer model employed here uses precalculated velocities to advect dynamically passive tracers. Two idealized tracers are considered: the Boundary Impulse Response (BIR) tracer, which helps to determine the ventilation pathways and time scales, and the Transient Surface Tracer (TST), which is relevant to transient atmospheric tracers. The importance of eddies is isolated by contrasting the control simulation with a simulation without mesoscale currents. The analysis reveals complex three-dimensional ventilation pathways, controlled by the interplay between the mean advection and eddy-induced spreading. The mean currents carry the tracers eastward within ACC and contribute to the formation of the Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) in the South Pacific and South Atlantic. The main effect of eddies is to disperse tracers away from the mean pathways, and this dispersion acts to retain the BIR tracer in the Atlantic and Indian sectors and reduce the upstream influence of these regions on the South Pacific. In addition, the eddy-induced along-isopycnal spreading within ACC increases the ventilated depth and the inventory of TST. The results can be used to interpret distribution of tracers in the ocean in numerical simulations and observations. © 2017. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

Lorenz R.,University of New South Wales | Argueso D.,University of New South Wales | Donat M.G.,University of New South Wales | Pitman A.J.,University of New South Wales | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres | Year: 2016

We examine how soil moisture variability and trends affect the simulation of temperature and precipitation extremes in six global climate models using the experimental protocol of the Global Land-Atmosphere Coupling Experiment of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5 (GLACE-CMIP5). This protocol enables separate examinations of the influences of soil moisture variability and trends on the intensity, frequency, and duration of climate extremes by the end of the 21st century under a business-as-usual (Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5) emission scenario. Removing soil moisture variability significantly reduces temperature extremes over most continental surfaces, while wet precipitation extremes are enhanced in the tropics. Projected drying trends in soil moisture lead to increases in intensity, frequency, and duration of temperature extremes by the end of the 21st century. Wet precipitation extremes are decreased in the tropics with soil moisture trends in the simulations, while dry extremes are enhanced in some regions, in particular the Mediterranean and Australia. However, the ensemble results mask considerable differences in the soil moisture trends simulated by the six climate models. We find that the large differences between the models in soil moisture trends, which are related to an unknown combination of differences in atmospheric forcing (precipitation, net radiation), flux partitioning at the land surface, and how soil moisture is parameterized, imply considerable uncertainty in future changes in climate extremes. © 2015. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

Lucas A.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center | Rodriguez S.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center | Narteau C.,CNRS Paris Institute of Global Physics | Charnay B.,LMD IPSL | And 7 more authors.
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2014

Dune fields on Titan cover more than 17% of the moon's surface, constituting the largest known surface reservoir of organics. Their confinement to the equatorial belt, shape, and eastward direction of propagation offer crucial information regarding both the wind regime and sediment supply. Herein, we present a comprehensive analysis of Titan's dune orientations using automated detection techniques on nonlocal denoised radar images. By coupling a new dune growth mechanism with wind fields generated by climate modeling, we find that Titan's dunes grow by sediment transport on a nonmobile substratum. To be fully consistent with both the local crestline orientations and the eastward propagation of Titan's dunes, the sediment should be predominantly transported by strong eastward winds, most likely generated by equinoctial storms or occasional fast westerly gusts. Additionally, convergence of the meridional transport predicted in models can explain why Titan's dunes are confined within ±30° latitudes, where sediment fluxes converge. © 2014. American Geophysical Union.

Marchand M.,University of Versailles | Marchand M.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Marchand M.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Keckhut P.,University of Versailles | And 39 more authors.
Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics | Year: 2012

The impact of the 11-year solar cycle on the stratosphere and, in particular, on the polar regions is investigated using simulations from the Chemistry Climate Model (CCM) LMDz-Reprobus. The annual solar signal clearly shows a stratospheric response largely driven by radiative and photochemical processes, especially in the upper stratosphere. A month-by-months analysis suggests that dynamical feedbacks play an important role in driving the stratospheric response on short timescales. CCM outputs on a 10 days frequency indicate how, in the northern hemisphere, changes in solar heating in the winter polar stratosphere may influence the upward propagation of planetary waves and thus their deposition of momentum, ultimately modifying the strength of the mean stratospheric overtuning circulation at middle and high latitudes. The model results emphasize that the main temperature and wind responses in the northern hemisphere can be explained by a different timing in the occurrence of Sudden Stratospheric Warmings (SSWs) that are caused by small changes in planetary wave propagation depending on solar conditions. The differences between simulations forced by different solar conditions indicate successive positive and negative responses during the course of the winter. The solar minimum simulation generally indicates a slightly stronger polar vortex early in the winter while the solar maximum simulation experiences more early SSWs with a stronger wave-mean flow interaction and reduced zonal wind at mid-latitudes in the upper stratosphere. The opposite response is observed during mid-winter, in February, with more SSWs simulated for solar minimum conditions while solar maximum conditions are associated with a damped planetary wave activity and a reinforced vortex after the initial stratospheric warming period. In late winter, the response is again reversed, as noticed in the temperature differences, with major SSW mostly observed in the solar maximum simulation and less intense final warmings simulated for solar minimum conditions. Due to the non-zonal nature of SSWs, the stratospheric response presents high regional variability during the northern hemisphere winter. As a result, successive positive and negative responses are observed during the course of the winter. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Rio C.,Meteo - France | Hourdin F.,LMD IPSL | Couvreux F.,Meteo - France | Jam A.,LMD IPSL
Boundary-Layer Meteorology | Year: 2010

The conditional sampling of coherent structures in large-eddy simulations of the convective boundary layer (Couvreux et al. Boundary-layer Meteorol 134:441-458, 2010) is used to propose and evaluate formulations of fractional entrainment and detrainment rates for mass-flux schemes. The proposed formulations are physically-based and continuous from the surface to the top of clouds. Entrainment is related to the updraft vertical velocity divergence, while detrainment depends on the thermal vertical velocity, on buoyancy and on the moisture contrast between the mean plume and its environment. The proposed formulations are first directly evaluated in simulations of shallow clouds. They are then tested in single-column simulations with the thermal plume model, a mass-flux representation of boundary-layer thermals. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010.

Couvreux F.,Meteo - France | Hourdin F.,LMD IPSL | Rio C.,Meteo - France
Boundary-Layer Meteorology | Year: 2010

A conditional sampling based on the combination of a passive tracer emitted at the surface and thermodynamic variables is proposed to characterise organized structures in large-eddy simulations of cloud-free and cloudy boundary layers. The sampling is evaluated against more traditional sampling of dry thermals or clouds. It enables the characterization of convective updrafts from the surface to the top of the boundary layer (or the top of cumulus clouds), describing in particular the transition from the sub-cloud to the cloud layer, and retrieves plume characteristics, entrainment and detrainment rates, variances and fluxes. This sampling is used to analyze the contribution of boundary-layer thermals to vertical fluxes and variances. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Jam A.,LMD IPSL | Hourdin F.,LMD IPSL | Rio C.,LMD IPSL | Couvreux F.,Meteo - France
Boundary-Layer Meteorology | Year: 2013

We present a statistical cloud scheme based on the subgrid-scale distribution of the saturation deficit. When analyzed in large-eddy simulations (LES) of a typical cloudy convective boundary layer, this distribution is shown to be bimodal and reasonably well-fitted by a bi-Gaussian distribution. Thanks to a tracer-based conditional sampling of coherent structures of the convective boundary layer in LES, we demonstrate that one mode corresponds to plumes of buoyant air arising from the surface, and the second to their environment, both within the cloud and sub-cloud layers. According to this analysis, we propose a cloud scheme based on a bi-Gaussian distribution of the saturation deficit, which can be easily coupled with any mass-flux scheme that discriminates buoyant plumes from their environment. For that, the standard deviations of the two Gaussian modes are parametrized starting from the top-hat distribution of the subgrid-scale thermodynamic variables given by the mass-flux scheme. Single-column model simulations of continental and maritime case studies show that this approach allows us to capture the vertical and temporal variations of the cloud cover and liquid water. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

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