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Hawkes R.,European Tour Performance Institute | O'Connor P.,Leeds Musculoskeletal Biomedical Research Unit LMBRU | Campbell D.,Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust
British Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2013

Objectives Golf is a popular sport played by an estimated 57 million people. Previous studies on wrist injuries in elite golfers have been of simple design and have demonstrated such injuries to be frequent, although no studies report the incidence, variety, severity or impact on the activity of wrist injuries in detail. This prospective cross-sectional study assesses these factors in a cohort of elite professional golfers. Methods European Tour golfers eligible to compete at the 2009 BMW PGA Championship at Wentworth were studied. Study design involved the completion of a structured questionnaire supplemented by interview and examination when required, with performance statistics provided by the European Tour. The severity of injury was assessed by the number of missed tournaments and the amount of time of missed practice. Results 128 of 153 eligible golfers, (84%) completed the study with 38 golfers (30%) reporting 43 problems. The majority of injuries (67%) occurred in the leading wrist at the most common location, the ulnar side of the wrist (35%). 87% of all ulnar-sided and 100% of radial-sided problems were in the leading wrist. Conclusions There were clear side differences reported by the players with the lead wrist demonstrating much higher injury rates in all areas. The most significant injury, in terms of absence from competition, was extensor carpi ulnaris tendon subluxation. Specific injuries are explained in relation to the biomechanics of the golf swing. Most structural injuries have a specific treatment and rehabilitation plan, which can involve significant periods of time away from the sport, while the management of many of the more minor problems is through alterations in technique or practice regimes, aiming to keep a golfer playing during recovery.


Campbell D.,Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust | Campbell D.,European Tour Performance Institute | Campbell R.,University of Liverpool | O'Connor P.,Leeds Musculoskeletal Biomedical Research Unit LMBRU | Hawkes R.,European Tour Performance Institute
British Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2013

The extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) muscle plays a key role not only in the active movements of wrist extension and ulnar deviation but also in providing stability to the ulnar side of the wrist. Its position relative to the other structures in the wrist changes with forearm pronation and supination. As such, it must be mobile yet stable. The ECU tendon relies on specific stabilising structures to hold it in the correct positions to perform its different functions. These structures can be injured in a variety of different athletic activities such as tennis, golf and rugby league, yet their injury and disruption is predictable when the mechanics of the ECU and the techniques of the sport are understood. The ECU tendon is also vulnerable to tendon pathologies other than instability. It lies subcutaneously and is easily palpated and visualized with diagnostic ultrasound, allowing early diagnosis and management of its specific conditions. Treatment includes rest, splintage and surgery with each modality having specific indications and recognised outcomes. This review described the functional anatomy in relevant sporting situations and explained how problems occur as well as when and how to intervene.


Wakefield R.J.,Leeds Musculoskeletal Biomedical Research Unit LMBRU | Kang T.,Yonsei University | Lanni S.,Fondazione Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico Policlinico S. Matteo | Nam J.,University of Leeds | Emery P.,University of Leeds
Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease | Year: 2012

Musculoskeletal ultrasound is a powerful tool not only for evaluating joint and related structures but also for assessing disease activity. Ultrasound in rheumatology has rapidly evolved and been incorporated into routine clinical practice over the past decade. Moreover, technological development of equipment has made it more accessible for rheumatologists. We present a review of advances in ultrasound in rheumatology, focusing on major chronological developments. © The Author(s) 2012.

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