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Dhama K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Chakraborty S.,Pt. Nehru Complex | Mahima,State Veterinary Hospital | Wani M.Y.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2013

Modern medicine has helped to a great extent to eradicate and cure several diseases of mankind and animals. But the existence of incurable diseases like cancer, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), diabetes or rheumatoid arthritis, side effects of allopathic medicine, increasing trend of antibiotic resistance and chemicals and biopesticides causing dietary risk have made the situation more critical than ever before. Thus, it has become a matter of concern for the scientists and researchers to develop novel therapies. Bacteriophage therapy to treat pathogenic bacterial infections, virophage therapy for conservation of global system and avian egg yolk antibody therapy for designing prophylactic strategies against Gastrointestinal (GI) diseases are interesting approaches. Others include the use of cytokines as adjunctive immunomodulators, gene therapy focusing on diseases caused by single gene defects, RNAi technology to suppress specific gene of interest and apoptins for cancer treatment. Stem cell therapy against several diseases and ailments has also been discussed. The use of nanoparticles for better drug delivery, even though costly, has been given equal importance. Nevertheless, immunomodulation, be it through physiological, chemical or microbial products, or through essential micronutrients, probiotics, herbs or cow therapy prove to be cost-effective, causing minimum adverse reactions when compared to allopathy. Development in the field of molecular biology has created an enormous impact on vaccine development. The present review deals with all these novel and emerging therapies essential to safeguard the health of humans and companion animals. © 2013 Asian Network for Scientific Information.

Dhama K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Rajagunalan S.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Chakraborty S.,Pt. Nehru Complex | Verma A.K.,Uttar Pradesh Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhayay Pashu Chikitsa | And 3 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2013

The term food borne diseases or food-borne illnesses or more commonly food poisoning are used to denote gastrointestinal complications that occur following recent consumption of a particular food or drink. Millions of people suffer worldwide every year and the situation is quiet grave in developing nations creating social and economic strain. The food borne pathogens include various bacteria viz., Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, Staphylococcus, Arcobacter, Clostridium perfringens, CI. botulinum andBacillus cerews and helminths viz., Taenia. They also include protozoa viz., Trichinella, Sarcocystis, Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum. The zoonotic potential and the ability to elaborate toxins by many of the microbes causing fatal intoxication are sufficient to understand the seriousness of the situation. The viral agents being host specific their transmission to humans through food of animal origin is not yet confirmed although these animal viruses are similar to that of viruses infecting human. Food-borne bacteria; protozoa and helminthes have complex distribution pattern in the environment and inside the host system. This along with complexity of the maintenance chain and life cycle (of parasites) has made it difficult for epidemiologist and diagnostician to undertake any immediate safety measures against them. Serological and molecular diagnostic tests viz. ELISA, Latex agglutination test, Lateral flow assays, Immunomagnetic separation assays, molecular assays viz. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), multiplex PCR, rmmuno-PCR, Realtime PCR, Random Amplrfred Polymorphs DNA (RAPD)-PCR, DNA microarrays and probes are widely used. Along with these LAMP assays, Capillary Electrophoresis-Single Strand Confirmation polymorphism (CE-SSCP); Flow cytometry, FISH, Biosensors, Direct epifluorescent filter technique, nanotechnology based methods and sophisticated tools (ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging and chlonangio-pancreatography) have aided in the diagnosis greatly. Most of the food-borne illnesses are self-limiting but in many instances antibiotics are recommended. With the increased drug resistance however use of chicken immunoglobulin, bacteriophage therapy, probiotics and herbs are gaining much importance these days. Adoption of proper prevention and control measures (including cooking procedures; hygiene, strict adherence to HACCP principles, public awareness and disease surveillance and monitoring) are the need of hour. All these have been discussed vividly in this review to help epidemiologists, diagnosticians, clinicians and above all common people so as to enable them avoid negligence regarding such serious issue. © 2013 Asian Network for Scientific Information.

Gowthaman V.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Singh S.D.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Dhama K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Barathidasan R.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2012

Adenoviruses have been isolated from both clinically healthy and diseased birds worldwide. The pathogenic role of most of the FAdVs is still questionable. They can quickly take on the role of opportunistic pathogens when additional factors, particularly concurrent infections, adversely affect the health of the avian host. Immnosuppressing agents especially chicken infectious anemia and infectious bursal disease viruses are known to enhance the pathogenicity of FAdVs upon coinfection. The aim of the present study was to screen for the involvement of FAdV in poultry flocks affected with respiratory disease complex by RT-PCR. The samples were also screened by RT-PCR/PCR for other respiratory pathogens. Thirty two commercial poultry flocks with the history of respiratory disease complex from various parts of India. FAdV nucleic acid could be detected in tissue samples of 13 out of 34 farms investigated. Out of 13 FAdV positive farms, FAdV and CIAV were alone detected in 4/13 (31 %) whereas, in other farms more than two respiratory pathogens were detected together. CIAV was detected in all the farms (34/34) investigated. Eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies were noticed in FAdV infected laryngeal and tracheal epithelium under light microscopy. The findings of the study assert that FAdV can play the role of primary respiratory pathogen in immunocompromised birds and also in the presence of other respiratory pathogens. © 2012 Asian Network for Scientific Information.

Gupta M.,LLRUVAS | Phulia S.K.,Buffalo Physiology and Reproduction Division | Singh S.,National Dairy Research Institute
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2014

The present study was planned for studying the sequential changes in early pregnant buffalo for the development of diagnostics for early pregnancy. In the present study, sera samples obtained at weekly intervals from early pregnant (day 0 to day 42 post-AI) buffaloes, and on days 0, 7 and 14 from non-pregnant cyclic buffaloes, were subjected to depletion of high abundant proteins followed by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and densitometric analysis. At least 65 2-D gel spots exhibited up-regulation, down-regulation or specific appearance at a specific stage during early buffalo pregnancy, except for the spots correlating with the high abundant proteins' location. Comparison with ExPASy and NCBI databases matched 48 of these spots with known proteins, but with varying degrees of confidence in terms of Mascot score and the species. Although high abundant proteins were depleted before 2-D electrophoresis, yet in some of the picked spots isoforms of common abundant proteins, viz. serum albumin, igg, serrotransferrin, complement and mhc molecules, were found. synaptojanin-1, apolipoprotein a-1, apolipoprotein b, keratin 10 and von Willebrand factors were some of the proteins identified in these spots, which have a documented role in embryogenesis and early pregnancy.

Dhama K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Verma A.K.,DUVASU | Rajagunalan S.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Deb R.,Indian Council of Agricultural Research | And 6 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2012

Flu viruses have mainly affected humans, birds and pigs worldwide. During the past 10 years these viruses are in limelight at a global level due to pandemic threats of Avian / Bird Flu and Swine Flu and their public health impacts, with added pandemic of swine flu virus recently. The current ongoing episodes of bird flu and swine flu are beyond the control, when and where or which country they start with nobody can predict. The continuous evolution and emergence of new strains indicate that the flu viruses are becoming more and more dangerous and this situation has posed a challenge to researchers to discover effective vaccines and therapeutics. Moreover, the role of pig as 'mixing bowl' for the virus to get reassorted has added to the complicated epidemiological scenario. The swine flu H1N1 reassorted subtype caused the first global pandemic in last 40 years, resulting in substantial illness, hospitalizations of millions of peoples and thousands of deaths throughout the world. A pace is there within these novel and emerging flu viruses and the scientific community, where the scientific community has to win the race so as to save the mankind. In this review, a brief overview on swine flu is presented highlighting the characteristics of the causative virus, the disease and its public health consequences, advances made in its diagnosis, vaccine and control, precautionary measures to be adapted in the wake of an outbreak. © 2012 Asian Network for Scientific Information.

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