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Yu X.R.,Yangzhou University | Zhou L.,Yangzhou University | Zhang J.,Yangzhou University | Yu H.,Yangzhou University | And 5 more authors.
Cereal Research Communications | Year: 2015

This study was conducted to compare structural development and biochemical accumulation of waxy and non-waxy wheat (NW) caryopses. The caryopses' microstructure of the waxy wheat (WW) and NW cultivars at different developmental stages were observed under light, fluorescence, and scanning electron microscope. The results were as follows: Compared with NW,WWhad a shorter maturation duration, which was reflected in several following characteristics. Programmed cell death of the pericarp began earlier, and the chlorophyll-containing layer in the pericarp was smaller. Vacuoles in chalazal cells accumulated more tannins at different developmental stages. Starch granules and protein bodies in the endosperm showed a higher accumulation level in developing caryopses, and aleurone cells were larger in size with larger numbers of aleurone grains. An analysis of the element content indicated that the mineral elements Mg, P, K, and Ca exhibited a higher content, while the heavy elements Cr, Cd, and Pb exhibited a lower content in the aleurone layer. © 2014 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest.

Guo J.,Lixiahe Agricultural Institute of Jiangsu Province | Guo J.,Shanxi Agricultural University | Zhang Y.,Lixiahe Agricultural Institute of Jiangsu Province | Shi W.,Shanxi Agricultural University | And 8 more authors.
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2015

The rates of grain-setting in apical and basal spike lets in wheat directly affect the kernel number perspike(KNPS). Inthisstudy, 220 wheat lines from 18 Chinese provinces and five foreign countries were used as a natural population. Phenotypic an alysis showed difference singrain-setting rates between apical and basal spike lets. Thebroad-senseher it ability of grain-setting rate in apical spike lets(18.7–21.0%) washigher than that forbasal spike lets(9.4–16.4%). Significant correlations were found between KNPS and grain numbers in apical (R2 = 0.40– 0.45,P<0.01) andbasal (R2=0.41–0.56,P<0.01) spikelets. Seventy two of 106 SSR markers were associated with grain setting, 32 for apical spike lets, and 34 for basalspike lets. The SSR lociwe relocatedon 17chromosomes, except3A, 3D, 4A, and 7D, and explained 3.7–22.9% of the phenotypicvariance. Four markers, Xcfa2153-1A202, Xgwm186-5A118, Xgwm156-3B319,andXgwm537-7B210, showed the largest effects on grain numbers in apical and basal spikelets. Highgra innumbers inapical and basal spikelets were associated with elitealleles. Ningmai9, Ning0569, and Yangmai 18 with high grain-setting rate scarried large rnumbers off avorablealleles. Comparison of grain numbers in basal and apical spike lets of 35 Yangmai and Ningmai lines indicated that the Ningma ilines had better grain-settingrates(mean21.4) than the Yangmai lines(16.5). © 2015 Guo, Zhang, Shi, Zhang, Zhang, Xu, Cheng, Cheng, Zhang, Hao and Cheng.

Guo J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Hao C.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhang Y.,Lixiahe Agricultural Institute of Jiangsu Province | Zhang B.,Lixiahe Agricultural Institute of Jiangsu Province | And 11 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Common wheat is one of the most important crops in China, which is the largest producer in the world. A set of 230 cultivars was used to identify yield-related loci by association mapping. This set was tested for seven yield-related traits, viz. plant height (PH), spike length (SL), spikelet number per spike (SNPS), kernel number per spike (KNPS), thousand-kernel weight (TKW), kernel weight per spike (KWPS), and sterile spikelet number (SSN) per plant in four environments. A total of 106 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers distributed on all 21 chromosomes were used to screen the set. Twenty-one and 19 of them were associated with KNPS and TKW, respectively. Association mapping detected 73 significant associations across 50 SSRs, and the phenotypic variation explained (R2 ) by the associations ranged from 1.54 to 23.93%. The associated loci were distributed on all chromosomes except 4A, 7A, and 7D. Significant and potentially new alleles were present on 8 chromosomes, namely1A, 1D, 2A, 2D, 3D, 4B, 5B, and 6B. Further analysis showed that genetic effects of associated loci were greatly influenced by association panels, and the R2 of crucial loci were lower in modern cultivars than in the mini core collection, probably caused by strong selection in wheat breeding. In order to confirm the results of association analysis, yield-related favorable alleles Xgwm135-1A138 , Xgwm337-1D186 , Xgwm102-2D144 , and Xgwm132-6B128 were evaluated in a double haploid (DH) population derived from Hanxuan10 xLumai14.These favorable alleles that were validated in various populations might be valuable in breeding for high-yield. © 2015 Guo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Ma H.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhang X.,Lixiahe Agricultural Institute of Jiangsu Province | Wang C.,Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Gao D.,Lixiahe Agricultural Institute of Jiangsu Province | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Cereal Science | Year: 2013

The effect of wx genes on amylose content, physicochemical properties of wheat starches, and the quality of Chinese crisp stick were investigated using near-isogenic lines (NILs) with null wx alleles in Yangmai 17 and Yangmai 01-2 backgrounds. wx genes showed significant effects on amylose content and other traits. The triple-null genotype had the lowest amylose content among eight genotypes, followed by double-null, single-null, and wild-type genotypes. The triple-null also showed lower flour yield, higher percentage of type B-granules on a volume basis and higher crystallinity than non-waxy genotypes, and showed significant differences in all pasting and thermal transition parameters compared to non-waxy genotypes, except for degree of retrogradation at day 14. For the quality of Chinese crisp stick, the hardness, crispness, fracturability, and specific volume of waxy genotype were 3.91kg, 11.0, 1.85mm and 104.4ml, whereas the corresponding ranges for non-waxy genotypes were 5.39-5.70kg, 0.5-0.9, 0.69-0.86mm and 49.5-57.6ml, respectively, in Yangmai 17 background. This indicates that waxy genotypes showed significantly better crisp stick quality than non-waxy genotypes. A similar trend was also observed in Yangmai 01-2 background. This indicated the potential utilization of waxy wheat for producing traditional products. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

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