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Uppsala, Sweden

Abramsson-Zetterberg L.,Livsmedelsverket | Abramsson-Zetterberg L.,University of Stockholm | Ilback N.-G.,Livsmedelsverket | Ilback N.-G.,Uppsala University
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2013

The safety of several azo colouring agents, used as food additives, has during the years been questioned. Allura Red AC (E129) has in some publications been classified as genotoxic. In fact, in the European Union, Allura Red is permitted as a food additive in human food, but, surprisingly, it was not acceptable as an additive for use in animal feed. In this study we have evaluated whether Allura Red is genotoxic using a flow cytometer-based micronucleus assay in peripheral blood of mice. Male FVB mice were given a single intra-peritoneal injection of various doses of Allura Red and sacrificed at 46. h after treatment. The tested doses were 0, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000, 1500, and 2000. mg/kg body weight (b.w.). Each dose group constituted three mice, except for in the dose group of 1000. mg/kg. b.w., which constituted four mice. Blood samples were collected and the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (fMNPCE) and the cell proliferation (%PCE) was determined. The analyses did not show any significant difference in the %PCE or in the fMNPCE. Consequently, under the testing circumstances one can conclude that Allura Red is not genotoxic. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Huybrechts I.,Ghent University | Sioen I.,Ghent University | Boon P.E.,Wageningen University | Ruprich J.,Food Republic | And 29 more authors.
Archives of Public Health | Year: 2011

Background/purpose: The number of dietary exposure assessment studies focussing on children is very limited. Children are however a vulnerable group due to their higher food consumption level per kg body weight. Therefore, the EXPOCHI project aims [1] to create a relational network of individual food consumption databases in children, covering different geographical areas within Europe, and [2] to use these data to assess the usual intake of lead, chromium, selenium and food colours. Methods: EXPOCHI includes 14 food consumption databases focussed on children (1-14 y old). The data are considered representative at national/regional level: 14 regions covering 13 countries. Since the aim of the study is to perform long-term exposure assessments, only data derived from 24 hr dietary recalls and dietary records recorded on at least two non-consecutive days per individual were included in the dietary exposure assessments. To link consumption data and concentration data of lead, chromium and selenium in a standardised way, categorisation of the food consumption data was based on the food categorisation system described within the SCOOP Task report 3.2.11. For food colours, the food categorisation system specified in the Council Directive 94/ 36/EC was used. Conclusion: The EXPOCHI project includes a pan-European long-term exposure assessment of lead, chromium, selenium and food colours among children living in 13 different EU countries. However, the different study methods and designs used to collect the data in the different countries necessitate an in-depth description of these different methods and a discussion about the resulting limitations. © 2011 Huybrechts et al. Source

de Neve M.,Ghent University | Sioen I.,Ghent University | Boon P.E.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM | Arganini C.,INRAN National Institute for Research on Food and Nutrition | And 26 more authors.
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2010

Within the European project called EXPOCHI (Individual Food Consumption Data and Exposure Assessment Studies for Children), 14 different European individual food consumption databases of children were used to conduct harmonised dietary exposure assessments for lead, chromium, selenium and food colours. For this, two food categorisation systems were developed to classify the food consumption data in such a way that these could be linked to occurrence data of the considered compounds. One system served for the exposure calculations of lead, chromium and selenium. The second system was developed for the exposure assessment of food colours. The food categories defined for the lead, chromium and selenium exposure calculations were used as a basis for the food colour categorisation, with adaptations to optimise the linkage with the food colour occurrence data. With this work, an initial impetus was given to make user-friendly food categorisation systems for contaminants and food colours applicable on a pan-European level. However, a set of difficulties were encountered in creating a common food categorisation system for 14 individual food consumption databases that differ in the type and number of foods coded and in level of detail provided about the consumed foods. The work done and the problems encountered in this project can be of interest for future projects in which food consumption data will be collected on a pan-European level and used for common exposure assessments. © 2010 Taylor & Francis. Source

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