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Kongvongxay S.,Livestock Research Center | Preston T.R.,Finca Ecologica | Leng R.A.,University of New England of Australia | Khang D.N.,Nong Lam University
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2011

Four male weaned crossbred goats (Bachthao × local female) with an initial weight of 11.61 ± 0.3 kg were used in a 4 × 4 Latin Square design to compare replacement of Muntingia calabura foliage with Mimosa pigra at four levels: 0, 25, 50 and 75% (DM basis). Increasing the replacement of N in Muntingia by that in Mimosa led to increases in DM intake, apparent digestibility of crude protein and N retention. Methane production was reduced by replacing Muntingia N with Mimosa N with the greatest effect (42% reduction) with 72% of the diet N from Mimosa.

Song M.K.,Chungbuk National University | Jin G.L.,Chungbuk National University | Ji B.J.,Chungbuk National University | Chang S.S.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | And 3 more authors.
Meat Science | Year: 2010

We hypothesized that increasing ruminal pH would lead to enrichment of adipose tissue with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Twenty-four Korean native (Hanwoo) steers were used to investigate the additive effects of monensin (30 ppm, SO-BM) and/or fish oil (0.7%, SO-BMF) in the diets along with soybean oil (7%) and sodium bicarbonate (0.5%, SO-B) on cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLAs in adipose tissue. The steers were assigned to randomly four groups of six animals each based on body weight. The control group (CON) was fed a commercial concentrate for the late fattening stage. Supplementation of oil and sodium bicarbonate reduced feed intake and daily gain, and fish oil further decreased feed intake (P < 0.001) and daily gain (P < 0.087) compared to steers fed other diets. Total CLA and CLA isomers in M. longissimus dorsi were not affected when steers were fed SO-B and SO-BM diets compared with those of steers fed CON and SO-BMF diets. However, total poly unsaturated fatty acids were higher (P = 0.03) in steers fed SO than in CON steers.

Chang'a J.S.,Livestock Research Center | Mdegela R.H.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | Ryoba R.,Sokoine University of Agriculture
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2010

Smallholder farmers' knowledge and practice of dairy calf management on 129 farms with calves less than 10 months of age in Southeastern and Southern Highland areas of Tanzania was assessed. The method of study included both a farm visit and completion of a questionnaire. Most of the farmers were female, with a primary level of education, and majority kept 1-3 milking cows that yielded 6-10 l milk/cow/day. Most of the calves were fed milk using a residual calf suckling system. Weaning age was 3-8 months. Overall, the body condition of the calves was poor, ranged from 1 to 2. 5 with a mode of 2. The majority of the farmers believed that helminthosis was the most common disease condition affecting the calves diarrhea was ranked as the second. Calf death was reported by 20% of the farmers to have occurred in their herd lasting the 2 years prior to the study. Calf body condition score was related to body weight for calves younger than 9 weeks, and older than 23 weeks of age, whereas no such relationship existed in the age group 9 to 23 weeks. The sex distribution was skewed with less male calves being older than 23 weeks. We hypothesize that male calves experience inferior management compared with female calves. This study demonstrates a low level of knowledge on, and poor practices of calf management among the surveyed farmers that suggest the need for educational intervention. © 2010 The Author(s).

Chang'a J.S.,Livestock Research Center | Mdegela R.,Sokoine University of Agriculture
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2011

A longitudinal observational study on calf health and growth was conducted in smallholder dairy farms in Mvomero and Njombe districts, Tanzania to investigate whether calf growth in these regions was predominantly affected by clinical diseases or other factors. The clinical health and growth of 156 calves from 121 farms were monitored for one year. Routine clinical examinations and bodyweight measurements were conducted by the same veterinarian at each of four visits to the study farms. Blood and faecal samples collected at each visit were screened for haemoparasites and gastrointestinal parasites. Calf mortality was 7.7% and clinical signs of disease were observed in 5.7%. Coccidial oocysts and nematode eggs were detected in 24.8% and 14.8% of 496 faecal samples, respectively, and haemoparasites in 16.9% (n=498). Mortality, together with nematode and coccidial infections, were significantly associated with district and month of study. Bodyweight gain per week ranged from -2.2 - 7.2 kg (mean 2.1, SD 1.5) in female calves and -1.8- 8 kg (mean 2.3, SD 1.5) in male calves. An extended period of impaired bodyweight gain from birth to weaning was observed. Mean body condition score was 1.8. Although the overall prevalence of clinical disease was low, calf growth rate was impaired. Inadequate feeding was considered the major factor for this observation and therefore it is recommended that calves are provided with nutritionally appropriate feed in order to attain adequate growth performance.

Chang'a J.S.,Livestock Research Center | Robertson L.J.,Section of Microbiology | Mtambo M.M.A.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | Mdegela R.H.,Sokoine University of Agriculture
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology | Year: 2011

A study was undertaken to investigate Cryptosporidium infection in crossbreed dairy calves in two districts in Tanzania. A total of 943 fecal samples from 601 dairy calves were included in the study, with calves from both smallholder dairy farms and from large-scale and medium-scale dairy farms. The modified Ziehl-Neelsen (mZN) technique was used to examine 710 samples, and 13 of these were considered to be positive for Cryptosporidium. These 13 samples considered positive by mZN, along with the remaining 233 samples, were analysed by immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Of these 246 samples examined by IFAT, 15 samples, 10 of which were considered positive by mZN, were also examined by the auramine phenol technique, and 5 samples, all of which were considered positive by mZN, were analysed by PCR. The results from the IFAT, auramine phenol and PCR analyses demonstrated that none of the samples contained Cryptosporidium oocysts, indicating that, cryptosporidiosis is currently not a problem in dairy calves in these regions of Tanzania. These unexpected results are discussed with respect to other reports on cryptosporidiosis in calves that suggest that this parasite is a serious calf disease globally, and particularly in relation to studies from Tanzania. We suggest that results from studies of cattle in Tanzania, in which mZN has been used as the sole analytical method, should be treated with caution. © W. S. Maney & Son Ltd 2011.

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