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Colazo M.G.,Livestock Research Branch | Behrouzi A.,Livestock Research Branch | Ambrose D.J.,Livestock Research Branch | Ambrose D.J.,University of Alberta | Mapletoft R.J.,University of Saskatchewan
Theriogenology | Year: 2015

Ovulation of an early-stage dominant follicle induced by exogenous GnRH reportedly results in a reduced ovulatory follicle size and fertility in beef and dairy cattle. Objectives were to examine factors associated with ovulatory follicle diameter and the relationship between ovulatory follicle diameter and pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) and pregnancy loss in lactating dairy cows subjected to GnRH-based programs for timed artificial insemination (TAI). A total of 1048 ovulations from 1576 breedings of cows that had or had not been presynchronized and subjected to a 5- or a 7-day GnRH-based protocol with or without progesterone supplementation between initial GnRH and PGF2a were analyzed. Ultrasonography was used to determine cyclicity, ovulation, and pregnancy status and to measure diameter of the ovulatory follicle at the time of TAI. Mean (± standard error) diameter of the ovulatory follicle was 16.4 ± 0.1 mm (range, 11-25 mm; n = 1048); the most common diameters were 15 (n = 170), 16 (n = 169), and 17 mm (n = 170). Multiparous cows and those subjected to a 7-day protocol had larger ovulatory follicles (P < 0.05). On average, multiparous cows that did not ovulate after the initial GnRH had the largest ovulatory follicles (17.0 ± 0.1 mm; n = 290), whereas all cows that ovulated after the initial GnRH and were subjected to a 5-day GnRH-based protocol had the smallest ovulatory follicles (15.6 ± 0.2 mm; n = 207). The associations between ovulatory follicle diameter and P/AI at 32 and 60 days after TAI were not significant. However, a significant linear relationship between ovulatory follicle diameter and pregnancy loss between 32 and 60 days after TAI was observed, with an increased (P < 0.05) probability of pregnancy loss in cows with an ovulatory follicle greater than 20 mm in diameter. In summary, the diameter of the ovulatory follicle preceding TAI was affected by interactions between ovulatory response to initial GnRH and parity and between ovulatory response to initial GnRH and the length of ovulation synchronization protocol. Ovulatory follicle diameter was not associated with P/AI at 32 or 60 days, but large ovulatory follicle size was identified as a predictor of pregnancy loss in lactating dairy cows subjected to GnRH-based protocols for TAI. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source

Dirandeh E.,Sari University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources | Roodbari A.R.,University of Tehran | Colazo M.G.,Livestock Research Branch
Theriogenology | Year: 2015

The objective was to compare 3 timed artificial insemination (TAI) protocols in lactating dairy cows during heat stress. Multiparous Holstein cows yielding (mean±SEM) 29.4±0.3kg of milk/d randomly were assigned to 1 of 3 TAI protocols at 34±5.1days in milk: 1) double-Ovsynch (DO; n=486): the cows received GnRH-7d-2α-3d-GnRH and Ovsynch56 (GnRH-7d-PGF2α-56h-GnRH-16h-AI) was initiated 7days later; 2) Presynch-GnRH-Ovsynch (PGO; n=453): the cows received PGF2α-14d-PGF2α-2d-GnRH and Ovsynch56 was initiated 7days later; and 3) presynch-Ovsynch (PO; n=435): the cows received PGF2α-14d-PGF2α and Ovsynch56 was initiated 12days later. The ovulatory response to the first GnRH of Ovsynch56 was higher in DO (65.0%) compared to PGO (53.2%) and PO (45.5%). Luteolytic response to PGF2α of Ovsynch was similar among TAI protocols (90.1%, 87.1%, and 86.2% for DO, PGO, and PO, respectively). Synchronization rate was greater in DO (86.2%) than in PGO (78.1%) and PO (72.1%) protocols. Irrespective of the TAI protocol, cows that ovulated in response to first GnRH had greater response to PGF2α (92.7 vs. 77.1%). Mean (±SEM) diameter (mm) of ovulatory follicle at TAI was larger in DO (16.1±0.3) than PGO (15.6±0.21) and PO (15.2±0.12). Cows subjected to DO had greater P/AI at 32days and at 60days after TAI (26.6 and 24.4%) compared with those in PGO (21.4 and 20.0%) and PO (17.2 and 15.9%). However, TAI protocol had no significant effect on the incidence of pregnancy loss (6.1%, 6.6%, and 7.4% for DO, GO, and PO, respectively). In summary, cows in the DO protocol had a greater ovulation rate to the first GnRH and a greater synchronization rate, larger ovulatory follicles and greater P/AI. Of the 3 protocols used, DO yield the best reproductive performance in heat-stressed, lactating dairy cows. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source

Lopez-Helguera I.,University of Lleida | Colazo M.G.,Livestock Research Branch | Garcia-Ispierto I.,University of Lleida | Lopez-Gatius F.,University of Lleida
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2016

The objective was to examine risk factors for the interval to resumption of ovarian cyclicity (ROC), multiple ovulations (MCL), ovarian follicular cysts (OC), and presence of intrauterine fluid (IUF) at 22 to 28 [visit (V) 1] and 36 to 42 (V2) days in milk (DIM) in dairy cows. The study was conducted retrospectively by evaluating records from 1,155 Holstein cows from 3 herds. Ovaries and uteri were examined at V1 and V2 by transrectal ultrasonography to determine ovarian structures and IUF. Based on the odds ratio, multiparous cows were more likely to have ROC at V1 by a factor of 1.79 compared with primiparous cows. The likelihood of ROC at V1 was lower in cows with higher milk production, in cows with retained fetal membranes (RFM) or cows with IUF at V1 by factors of 0.98 (for each kg of milk increased), 0.52, and 0.61, respectively. Based on the odds ratio, cows diagnosed with IUF at V2 were 2.85 times more likely to have attained ROC at V2. Multiparous cows and cows that delivered twins were 2.73 and 2.16 times, respectively, more likely to have MCL at V1, whereas cows with RFM were 0.38 times less likely to have MCL at V1. The likelihood of MCL at V2 was higher in cows with MCL and OC at V1 by factors of 2.67 and 1.91, respectively. Multiparous cows were 8.51 times more likely to have OC at V1 than primiparous cows. Higher producing cows were more likely to have OC at V2 by a factor of 1.04 compared with lower producing cows. Parity, stillbirth, RFM, and ROC at V1 were all identified as risk factors for IUF at V1. Cows with RFM and delivering twins were more likely to be diagnosed with IUF at V2 by a factor of 3.43 and 4.07, respectively. In summary, parity, twinning, RFM, metritis, IUF, and milk production were all associated with altered ovarian structures, and the presence of IUF was related to parity, twinning, RFM, and ROC in postpartum dairy cows. © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Source

Lopez Helguera I.,University of Lleida | Behrouzi A.,Livestock Research Branch | Kastelic J.P.,University of Calgary | Colazo M.G.,Livestock Research Branch
Canadian Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2016

The aims of the study were to: (1) investigate factors affecting calf birth weight (CBW) and gestation length (GL); and (2) determine risk factors associated with dystocia in 1019 Holstein heifers and cows in a tie stall dairy herd. Calf sex (CS), sire, and GL were related to CBW in primiparous and multiparous cows, with no significant effect of season, age of primiparous cows (AGE) or days in milk (DIM) of multiparous cows at conception. Gestation length was affected by CS in primiparous, with a shorter GL for female versus male calves (275.7 ± 0.5 vs. 278.3 ± 0.4; P < 0.001). Also, GL was shorter in multiparous cows that calved during the cold season compared to those that calved in mild or warm seasons. Primiparous cows had a higher prevalence of dystocia compared to multiparous cows (32.1 vs. 8.5%; P < 0.001), but it was highly variable depending on sire (24.4%–60.0% for primiparous and 0%–21.1% for multiparous). In conclusion, CS, sire, and GL were related to CBW, whereas GL was affected by CS in primiparous and season in multiparous. The CBW was the major factor affecting dystocia in primiparous cows, whereas sire and twin pregnancies were factors related to dystocia in both primiparous and multiparous cows. © 2016, Agricultural Institute of Canada. All rights reserved. Source

Colazo M.G.,Livestock Research Branch | Dourey A.,University of Alberta | Rajamahendran R.,University of British Columbia | Ambrose D.J.,Livestock Research Branch | Ambrose D.J.,University of Alberta
Theriogenology | Year: 2013

One of the causes of poor fertility in high producing dairy cows is inadequate progesterone. Therefore, we determined the efficacy of an intravaginal insert containing 1.55 g of progesterone (PRID) given before and/or after timed AI (TAI) on ovarian response, plasma progesterone concentrations, pregnancy per AI (P/AI) and pregnancy losses. Lactating dairy cows at three locations were assigned (Day 0) to an Ovsynch protocol with (N = 294) or without (N = 314) a PRID. The Ovsynch protocol consisted of two injections of 100 μg gonadorelin (GnRH) 9 days apart and one injection of 500 μg cloprostenol (PG) 7 days after the first GnRH treatment. Insertion and removal of PRID occurred concurrent with the first GnRH and PG treatments, respectively. Timed AI was carried out 12 to 16 hours after the second GnRH. Ovarian status of a subset of 217 first service cows had been presynchronized with 2 treatments of PG 14 days apart with the last PG given 12 days before the first GnRH of the Ovsynch protocol. Body condition score (scale of one to five) was recorded at TAI. Ultrasonographic examinations were done in all cows at first GnRH, at PG, at TAI, and 24 hours after TAI for response to treatment and at 32 and 60 days after TAI for confirmation of pregnancy. At 4.5 days after TAI (Day 14), cows that responded to PG and ovulated after the second GnRH treatment were reassigned to receive (N = 223) or not receive (N = 229) a PRID for 7 days. Blood samples were taken for progesterone determination at PG treatment, at TAI, and post TAI on Days 14 and 21. The PRID treatment pre-TAI reduced the percentage of cows ovulating before TAI (5.8% vs. 11.1%), and significantly increased P/AI in nonpresynchronized cows (41.3% vs. 25.1%). Cows ovulating in response to the first GnRH treatment, cyclic cows, and cows with body condition score of 2.75 or more had increased P/AI, but the addition of a PRID pre-TAI to these cows did not increase P/AI. The PRID treatment post TAI did not affect P/AI, but reduced pregnancy losses (6.1% vs. 11.4%) between 32 and 60 days of gestation. The reduction in pregnancy losses tended (P = 0.10) to be significant in acyclic cows receiving a PRID than in those not receiving a PRID (5.6% vs. 33.3%). Plasma progesterone concentrations at PG treatment and on Day 21 (11.5 days after TAI) were linearly associated with P/AI. In conclusion, progesterone supplementation pre-TAI increased P/AI in nonpresynchronized cows. Progesterone supplementation post TAI reduced pregnancy losses, particularly in acyclic cows. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

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