Livestock Research

Lelystad, Netherlands

Livestock Research

Lelystad, Netherlands
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Becker P.M.,Livestock Research | van Wikselaar P.G.,Livestock Research | Mul M.F.,Livestock Research | Pol A.,Radboud University Nijmegen | And 5 more authors.
Veterinary Microbiology | Year: 2012

Decomposition products of ingested garlic are to a certain extent excreted via the lungs. If the supposed health-supporting capacities associated with garlic extend to these exhaled sulfurous compounds, they could have an effect on the course of pneumonia. In this study, the garlic-derived volatile allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) as a lead compound of volatile garlic metabolites was shown to exhibit an antibacterial effect against the pig pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 9. AMS caused a delay in the appearance of the optical density-monitored growth of A. pleuropneumoniae in medium when compared to unaffected growth curves, yet without lowering the stationary phase yield at the concentration range tested. At 1.1. mM, AMS impaired the in vitro growth rate of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 9 by 8% compared to unimpeded growth. In an animal trial, a garlic-fed group of 15 pigs that received a diet with 5% garlic feed component and a control group of 15 pigs that received a diet without garlic were infected with A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 via an aerosol and subsequently followed for 4 days. At the day of the challenge, blood AMS in the garlic-fed group amounted to 0.32. ±. 0.13. μM. A beneficial, alleviating effect of garlic on the course and severity of an A. pleuropneumoniae infection in pigs was indicated by the reduced occurrence of characteristic pleuropneumonia lesions (27% of the lungs affected in the garlic-fed group vs. 47% in the control group) and a near to significant (p= 0.06) lower relative lung weight post mortem in the garlic-fed group. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Lesna I.,University of Amsterdam | Lesna I.,University of Groningen | Sabelis M.W.,University of Amsterdam | van Niekerk T.G.C.M.,Livestock Research | Komdeur J.,University of Groningen
Experimental and Applied Acarology | Year: 2012

To assess their potential to control poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae), we tested selected predaceous mites (Androlaelaps casalis and Stratiolaelaps scimitus) that occur naturally in wild bird nests or sometimes spontaneously invade poultry houses. This was done under laboratory conditions in cages, each with 2-3 laying hens, initially 300 poultry red mites and later the release of 1,000 predators. These small-scale tests were designed to prevent mite escape from the cages and they were carried out in three replicates at each of three temperature regimes: 26, 30 (constant day and night) and 33-25 °C (day-night cycle). After 6 weeks total population sizes of poultry red mites and predatory mites were assessed. For the temperature regimes of 26 and 33/25 °C S. scimitus reduced the poultry red mite population relative to the control experiments by a factor 3 and 30, respectively, and A. casalis by a factor of 18 and 55, respectively. At 30 °C the predators had less effect on red mites, with a reduction of 1.3-fold for S. scimitus and 5.6-fold for A. casalis. This possibly reflected hen manure condition or an effect of other invertebrates in the hen feed. Poultry red mite control was not negatively affected by temperatures as high as 33 °C and was always better in trials with A. casalis than in those with S. scimitus. In none of the experiments predators managed to eradicate the population of poultry red mites. This may be due to a prey refuge effect since most predatory mites were found in and around the manure tray at the bottom of the cage, whereas most poultry red mites were found higher up in the cage (i. e. on the walls, the cover, the perch, the nest box and the food box). The efficacy of applying predatory mites in the poultry industry may be promoted by reducing this refuge effect, boosting predatory mite populations using alternative prey and prolonged predator release devices. Biocontrol success, however, will strongly depend on how the poultry is housed in practice (free range, cage or aviary systems) and on which chemicals are applied to disinfect poultry houses and to control other pests. © 2012 The Author(s).


Mayasari N.,Wageningen University | Mayasari N.,Padjadjaran University | de Vries Reilingh G.,Wageningen University | Nieuwland M.G.B.,Wageningen University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2015

The objective was to study the effect of dry period length in dairy cows on immunoglobulin content and natural antibodies (NAb) titers in colostrum, growth, and plasma natural and specific antibody titers in plasma of calves. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n = 167) were randomly assigned to 3 dry period lengths (0, 30, or 60 d). Colostrum production, concentration of colostrum IgG and IgM, and titers of NAb (isotypes IgG and IgM) binding keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and human serum albumin (HuSA) in colostrum were measured. Female calves were immunized with both KLH and HuSA at wk 6 and 10 of life. Titers of NAb and specific antibody (SpAb) for isotypes IgG, IgM, and total immunoglobulin (IgT) binding KLH or HuSA were determined in plasma of female calves. Primary and secondary antibody responses to KLH or HuSA from wk 6 and 10 were expressed as the increase in antibody titers to wk 10 and 11 of life after primary and secondary challenges, respectively. Pregnancy length for cows with a 0-d dry period was 3. d shorter compared with cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period. Birth weight of calves from cows with a 0-d dry period was lower compared with calves from cows with a 30-d dry period. Growth of calves until 12. wk of life was not affected by dry period length. Colostrum production and IgG and IgM concentration in colostrum were lower for cows with a 0-d dry period than a 60-d dry period. Natural IgG and IgM titers binding KLH or HuSA were lower in colostrum from cows with a 0-d dry period compared with cows with a 60-d dry period. Natural antibody titers (IgG, IgM, and IgT) binding KLH or HuSA in plasma were lower during the first 2. wk of life for calves from cows with a 0-d dry period compared with calves from cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period. After primary and secondary immunization of calves with KLH and HuSA, SpAb titers of calves were not affected by dry period length. After secondary immunization, the response of IgG and IgT binding KLH was higher in plasma of calves from cows with a 0-d dry period. The results of this study demonstrate that, although omission of the dry period of dairy cows leads to lower plasma NAb titers in calves during the first 2. wk of life, SpAb titers in calves were not affected and even the secondary antibody responses were enhanced compared with calves from cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period. © 2015 American Dairy Science Association.


PubMed | Padjadjaran University, Wageningen University and Livestock Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of dairy science | Year: 2015

The objective was to study the effect of dry period length in dairy cows on immunoglobulin content and natural antibodies (NAb) titers in colostrum, growth, and plasma natural and specific antibody titers in plasma of calves. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n=167) were randomly assigned to 3 dry period lengths (0, 30, or 60 d). Colostrum production, concentration of colostrum IgG and IgM, and titers of NAb (isotypes IgG and IgM) binding keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and human serum albumin (HuSA) in colostrum were measured. Female calves were immunized with both KLH and HuSA at wk 6 and 10 of life. Titers of NAb and specific antibody (SpAb) for isotypes IgG, IgM, and total immunoglobulin (IgT) binding KLH or HuSA were determined in plasma of female calves. Primary and secondary antibody responses to KLH or HuSA from wk 6 and 10 were expressed as the increase in antibody titers to wk 10 and 11 of life after primary and secondary challenges, respectively. Pregnancy length for cows with a 0-d dry period was 3d shorter compared with cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period. Birth weight of calves from cows with a 0-d dry period was lower compared with calves from cows with a 30-d dry period. Growth of calves until 12 wk of life was not affected by dry period length. Colostrum production and IgG and IgM concentration in colostrum were lower for cows with a 0-d dry period than a 60-d dry period. Natural IgG and IgM titers binding KLH or HuSA were lower in colostrum from cows with a 0-d dry period compared with cows with a 60-d dry period. Natural antibody titers (IgG, IgM, and IgT) binding KLH or HuSA in plasma were lower during the first 2 wk of life for calves from cows with a 0-d dry period compared with calves from cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period. After primary and secondary immunization of calves with KLH and HuSA, SpAb titers of calves were not affected by dry period length. After secondary immunization, the response of IgG and IgT binding KLH was higher in plasma of calves from cows with a 0-d dry period. The results of this study demonstrate that, although omission of the dry period of dairy cows leads to lower plasma NAb titers in calves during the first 2 wk of life, SpAb titers in calves were not affected and even the secondary antibody responses were enhanced compared with calves from cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period.


Lai H.T.L.,Wageningen UR Livestock Research | Lai H.T.L.,Wageningen University | Lai H.T.L.,Hanoi University of Agriculture | Aarnink A.J.A.,Wageningen UR Livestock Research | And 4 more authors.
ASABE - 9th International Livestock Environment Symposium 2012, ILES 2012 | Year: 2012

This paper presents a study in which concentrations and size distributions of airborne particles were measured inside and outside typical animal houses for broilers, broiler breeder (both floor housing with litter); layers (floor housing system and aviary housing system); turkeys (floor housing with litter), pigs: fattening pigs (traditional houses, low emission houses with dry feed, and low emission houses with wet feed), piglets, sows (in individual and in group housing); cattle (cubicle house), and mink (cages). Dust concentrations in the different particle size ranges were generally higher, both in counts and mass, in poultry houses than in pig houses. The concentrations in pig houses were higher than those in cattle and mink houses. The particle counts in animal houses were highest (on average 87%) in the size ranges < 1.0 μm, while particle mass was highest in size ranges > 2.5 μm (on average 95%). Most particles outside were in the size range < 1.0 μm (99% in counts).


van der Meulen J.,BioMedical Research | Panneman H.,Dr Van Haeringen Laboratory | Jansman A.J.M.,Livestock Research
Livestock Science | Year: 2010

Grain legumes produced in Europe such as pea, faba beans and lupins are alternative vegetable protein sources for imported soy protein in animal feeds. These legume seeds contain constituents that are not digested and may act as a substrate for microbial fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract, thereby modulating the microbial population and affecting the microbial diversity. In this study the effect was evaluated of inclusion of pea and faba beans and their hull fractions in diets for piglets on the intestinal microbial population at the ileal level.A total of 72 piglets weaned at 28. days of age were fed a control diet based on soybean meal or diets with pea (250. g/kg), pea hulls (100. g/kg), faba beans (250. g/kg) or faba bean hulls (100. g/kg). All piglets were challenged orally with an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) 7. days after weaning, except for half of the piglets fed the soybean meal diet that were inoculated with phosphate buffered saline. The piglets were sacrificed 21. days after weaning and ileal digesta samples were collected and analysed with a terminal restriction fraction length polymorphism based method of Microbial Community Profiling and Characterization.From 10. days after the challenge, there was no faecal excretion of ETEC in any of the piglets. There was a distinct different microbial profile in the piglets fed the diet with faba beans or faba bean hulls, showing a lower number of terminal restriction fragments (T-RFs) compared to the other treatments. Such an alteration in the ileal microflora composition by the use of different legume seeds or their hull fractions suggests a potential for the manipulation of intestinal microbial activity and thus in preventing or provoking intestinal disorders in piglets. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


van der Meulen J.,Biomedical Research | Jansman A.J.M.,Livestock Research
Livestock Science | Year: 2010

After weaning piglets frequently have diarrhoea associated with an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection. Alternative plant protein sources such as peas, faba beans and lupins may contribute in preventing gastrointestinal problems. In the small intestinal segment perfusion model, the anti-diarrhoea effect of pea and faba bean fractions on net absorption of fluid was investigated.Segments with a cranial inflow tube and a caudal outflow tube were fitted in the small intestine of 5-week old anaesthetized piglets. The odd numbered segments were infused with ETEC and the even segments with PBS, whereupon the segments were perfused over 8. h. Pea meal, pea hulls, protein-enriched pea meal and starch-enriched pea meal were perfused in 4 piglets in 4 pairs of segments (an uninfected and an adjacent ETEC-infected) with saline as a control in another pair of segments. Faba bean meal, faba bean hulls, protein-enriched faba bean meal and starch-enriched faba bean meal were perfused in another 4 piglets. Net fluid absorption was calculated from the difference between the volumes of inflow and outflow divided by the surface area.ETEC induced loss of net intestinal fluid absorption was shown to be decreased in the segments perfused with pea hulls and faba bean hulls, while there was no effect of the other pea or faba bean products. Although hulls of pea and faba bean did not completely eliminate the decreased fluid absorption after ETEC challenge, these results indicate that hulls of pea and faba bean may promote net fluid absorption in piglets during post weaning diarrhoea. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


McKeegan D.E.F.,University of Glasgow | Reimert H.G.M.,Livestock Research | Hindle V.A.,Livestock Research | Boulcott P.,University of Glasgow | And 4 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2013

Disease control measures require poultry to be killed on farms to minimize the risk of disease being transmitted to other poultry and, in some cases, to protect public health. We assessed the welfare implications for poultry of the use of high-expansion gas-filled foam as a potentially humane, emergency killing method. In laboratory trials, broiler chickens, adult laying hens, ducks, and turkeys were exposed to air-, N2-, or CO2-filled high expansion foam (expansion ratio 300:1) under standardized conditions. Birds were equipped with sensors to measure cardiac and brain activity, and measurements of oxygen concentration in the foam were carried out. Initial behavioral responses to foam were not pronounced but included headshakes and brief bouts of wing flapping. Both N2- and CO2- filled foam rapidly induced ataxia/loss of posture and vigorous wing flapping in all species, characteristic of anoxic death. Immersion in air-filled, high expansion foam had little effect on physiology or behavior. Physiological responses to both N2- and CO2-filled foam were characterized by a pronounced bradyarrythymia and a series of consistent changes in the appearance of the electroencephalogram. These were used to determine an unequivocal time to loss of consciousness in relation to submersion. Mean time to loss of consciousness was 30 s in hens and 18 s in broilers exposed to N2-filled foam, and 16 s in broilers, 1 s in ducks, and 15 s in turkeys exposed to CO2-filled foam. Euthanasia achieved with anoxic foam was particularly rapid, which is explained by the very low oxygen concentrations (below 1%) inside the foam. Physiological observations and postmortem examination showed that the mode of action of high expansion, gas-filled foam is anoxia, not occlusion of the airway. These trials provide proof-ofprinciple that submersion in gas-filled, high expansion foam provides a rapid and highly effective method of euthanasia, which may have potential to provide humane emergency killing or routine depopulation. © 2013 Poultry Science Association Inc.


Decomposition products of ingested garlic are to a certain extent excreted via the lungs. If the supposed health-supporting capacities associated with garlic extend to these exhaled sulfurous compounds, they could have an effect on the course of pneumonia. In this study, the garlic-derived volatile allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) as a lead compound of volatile garlic metabolites was shown to exhibit an antibacterial effect against the pig pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 9. AMS caused a delay in the appearance of the optical density-monitored growth of A. pleuropneumoniae in medium when compared to unaffected growth curves, yet without lowering the stationary phase yield at the concentration range tested. At 1.1mM, AMS impaired the in vitro growth rate of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 9 by 8% compared to unimpeded growth. In an animal trial, a garlic-fed group of 15 pigs that received a diet with 5% garlic feed component and a control group of 15 pigs that received a diet without garlic were infected with A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 via an aerosol and subsequently followed for 4 days. At the day of the challenge, blood AMS in the garlic-fed group amounted to 0.32 0.13 M. A beneficial, alleviating effect of garlic on the course and severity of an A. pleuropneumoniae infection in pigs was indicated by the reduced occurrence of characteristic pleuropneumonia lesions (27% of the lungs affected in the garlic-fed group vs. 47% in the control group) and a near to significant (p=0.06) lower relative lung weight post mortem in the garlic-fed group.


Ogink N.W.M.,Livestock Research | Stigter H.,Biometris
ASABE - 9th International Livestock Environment Symposium 2012, ILES 2012 | Year: 2012

Emission of ammonia (NH3) from animal husbandry, and specially from the dairy sector, contributes significantly to acidification and eutrophication, and affects sensitive natural areas. In the nineties Monteny (1998) introduced a mechanistic model to understand and predict the NH 3 emissions from cubicle dairy cow houses. Although a limited sensitivity analysis was carried out, we still lack information that essential for further development of the model. Our aim is that the model can predict and assess the NH3 emission from dairy cow houses under practical circumstance. The objective of this research was 1) to determine the relevance and irrelevance of a limited set of input factors, and 2) assess options for further development of the model for use in practice. A full factorial sensitivity analysis was carried out for eight variables related to NH 3 emission from a urine puddle on the floor. Relative importance and R2 of the regression model factors were determined. The NH 3 emission varied strongly with both high and low emissions. Strongly contributing process variables were puddle pH, initial urea concentration, urination frequency, puddle depth and puddle area. We conclude that deviations in these influencing variables lead to large fluctuations in the NH3 emission, which means that precise quantification of these variables in practice is essential for accurate predictions. Moreover, the results also show that the model may be over-parameterized, having several inputs that seem hardly relevant for the level of NH3 emission.

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