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Wageningen, Netherlands

van der Meulen J.,Biomedical Research | Panneman H.,Dr Van Haeringen Laboratory | Jansman A.J.M.,Livestock Research
Livestock Science | Year: 2010

Grain legumes produced in Europe such as pea, faba beans and lupins are alternative vegetable protein sources for imported soy protein in animal feeds. These legume seeds contain constituents that are not digested and may act as a substrate for microbial fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract, thereby modulating the microbial population and affecting the microbial diversity. In this study the effect was evaluated of inclusion of pea and faba beans and their hull fractions in diets for piglets on the intestinal microbial population at the ileal level.A total of 72 piglets weaned at 28. days of age were fed a control diet based on soybean meal or diets with pea (250. g/kg), pea hulls (100. g/kg), faba beans (250. g/kg) or faba bean hulls (100. g/kg). All piglets were challenged orally with an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) 7. days after weaning, except for half of the piglets fed the soybean meal diet that were inoculated with phosphate buffered saline. The piglets were sacrificed 21. days after weaning and ileal digesta samples were collected and analysed with a terminal restriction fraction length polymorphism based method of Microbial Community Profiling and Characterization.From 10. days after the challenge, there was no faecal excretion of ETEC in any of the piglets. There was a distinct different microbial profile in the piglets fed the diet with faba beans or faba bean hulls, showing a lower number of terminal restriction fragments (T-RFs) compared to the other treatments. Such an alteration in the ileal microflora composition by the use of different legume seeds or their hull fractions suggests a potential for the manipulation of intestinal microbial activity and thus in preventing or provoking intestinal disorders in piglets. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Engel B.,Biometris | Lambooij E.,Livestock Research | Buist W.G.,Biometris | Vereijken P.,Biometris
Meat Science | Year: 2012

Prediction equations for the percentage lean meat in pig carcasses in The Netherlands were derived for the Hennessy Grading Probe 7, Capteur Gras/Maigre - Sydel and CSB-Image-Meater. Because castrated males are expected to vanish from the Dutch pig population in the near future, accuracy of prediction was evaluated for different scenarios representing a wide range of different proportions for entire males, castrated males and females in the Dutch pig population. The prediction equations for the instruments are in compliance with the EC regulations for prediction accuracy for the different scenarios. So, these equations will remain valid when castrated males are (gradually) removed from the Dutch slaughter population. Results of this study are of interest for researchers from countries or areas contemplating the use of one of the aforementioned instruments. The statistical approach for evaluation of prediction accuracy is of particular interest when changes in proportions of important subpopulations in the target population are foreseen. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Dohmen W.,University Utrecht | Neijenhuis F.,Livestock Research | Hogeveen H.,University Utrecht | Hogeveen H.,Wageningen University
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2010

Poor hygiene is an important risk factor for reduced udder health. Because the teat cleaning process is done automatically on farms with an automatic milking system (AMS), hygiene management might differ. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between hygiene and udder health on farms with an AMS at the farm level as well as at the cow level. Information on hygiene and udder health was collected on 151 Dutch dairy farms with an AMS. Teams of 2 veterinary students collected data with the use of a partially open-ended questionnaire and scoring protocols for hygiene of the cows, cleanliness of the AMS, and functioning of the AMS. Milk production records from the Dutch dairy herd information association were also collected. Stepwise general linear models were used to analyze the relation between hygiene and udder health at farm level. Dependent variables were average herd somatic cell count (SCC), the average percentage of new cows with a high SCC, and the incidence rate of clinical mastitis, all in the year preceding the farm visit. The annual average herd SCC was positively related to the proportion of cows with dirty teats before milking and the proportion of cows with dirty thighs. The annual average percentage of new cows with a high SCC was positively related to the proportion of cows with dirty teats before milking and the proportion of milkings where teats were not covered with teat disinfecting spray by the AMS. The annual incidence rate of clinical mastitis was positively related to the frequency of replacing the milking filters. At the cow level, hygiene scores of the udder, thighs, and legs (range 1 to 4, where 1 is clean and 4 is very dirty) were related with cow SCC from the milk production test day closest to the farm visit using a general linear mixed model. The relationship between cow SCC and the hygiene score of the udder was positive. © 2010 American Dairy Science Association.

van der Meulen J.,Biomedical Research | Jansman A.J.M.,Livestock Research
Livestock Science | Year: 2010

After weaning piglets frequently have diarrhoea associated with an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection. Alternative plant protein sources such as peas, faba beans and lupins may contribute in preventing gastrointestinal problems. In the small intestinal segment perfusion model, the anti-diarrhoea effect of pea and faba bean fractions on net absorption of fluid was investigated.Segments with a cranial inflow tube and a caudal outflow tube were fitted in the small intestine of 5-week old anaesthetized piglets. The odd numbered segments were infused with ETEC and the even segments with PBS, whereupon the segments were perfused over 8. h. Pea meal, pea hulls, protein-enriched pea meal and starch-enriched pea meal were perfused in 4 piglets in 4 pairs of segments (an uninfected and an adjacent ETEC-infected) with saline as a control in another pair of segments. Faba bean meal, faba bean hulls, protein-enriched faba bean meal and starch-enriched faba bean meal were perfused in another 4 piglets. Net fluid absorption was calculated from the difference between the volumes of inflow and outflow divided by the surface area.ETEC induced loss of net intestinal fluid absorption was shown to be decreased in the segments perfused with pea hulls and faba bean hulls, while there was no effect of the other pea or faba bean products. Although hulls of pea and faba bean did not completely eliminate the decreased fluid absorption after ETEC challenge, these results indicate that hulls of pea and faba bean may promote net fluid absorption in piglets during post weaning diarrhoea. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Ellis J.L.,University of Guelph | Bannink A.,Livestock Research | France J.,University of Guelph | Kebreab E.,University of California at Davis | Dijkstra J.,Wageningen University
Global Change Biology | Year: 2010

The importance of evaluating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from dairy cows within the whole farm setting is being realized as more important than evaluating these emissions in isolation. Current whole farm models aimed at evaluating GHG emissions make use of simple regression equations to predict enteric methane (CH4) production. The objective of the current paper is to evaluate the performance of nine CH4 prediction equations that are currently being used in whole farm GHG models. Data used to evaluate the prediction equations came from a collection of individual (IND) and treatment averaged (TRT) data. Equations were compared based on mean square prediction error (MSPE) and concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) analysis. In general, predictions were poor, with root MSPE (as a percentage of observed mean) values ranging from 20.2 to 52.5 for the IND database and from 24.0 to 38.2 for the TRT database and CCC values ranging from 0.009 to 0.493 for the IND database and from 0.000 to 0.271 for the TRT database. Overall, the equations of Moe & Tyrrell and IPCC Tier II performed best on the IND dataset, and the equations of Moe & Tyrrell and Kirchgeßner et al., performed best on the TRT dataset. Results show that the simple more generalized equations performed worse than those that attempted to represent important aspects of diet composition, but in general significant amounts of bias and deviation of the regression slope from unity existed for all equations. The low prediction accuracy of CH4 equations in whole farm models may introduce substantial error into inventories of GHG emissions and lead to incorrect mitigation recommendations. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

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