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Bhatti S.A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ahmed M.F.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Wynn P.C.,Charles Sturt University | McGill D.,Charles Sturt University | And 8 more authors.
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2012

The objective was to study the growth potential of Sahiwal calves given milk or milk replacer with or without concentrates. For this purpose, forty-eight Sahiwal calves were divided into four groups of 12 animals each with equal sex ratio. In each group, the calves were offered either milk or a milk replacer (MR) at a rate of 10% of their body weight adjusted weekly. In addition to this, calves were fed either a starter ration plus Egyptian clover hay (SR + H) or hay only (H) until the end of trial. The milk or MR was withdrawn gradually from day 56 until animals were weaned completely by day 84. Calves offered milk grew faster than those offered MR (357 ± 9 vs. 162 ± 9 g/day; p < 0.05) and displayed higher weaning weights (51.6 ± 0.8 vs. 35.2 ± 0.8 kg; p < 0.05). The calves offered SR + H grew faster (311 ± 9 vs. 208 ± 9 g/day; p < 0.05) and displayed higher weaning weights (48.7 ± 0.8 vs. 38.1 ± 0.8 kg; p < 0.05) than those fed H alone. Calves offered milk plus SR + H showed the highest growth rate and weaning weights (401 ± 13 g/day and 56.3 ± 1 kg, respectively). The lowest growth rate and weaning weights were observed in calves offered MR and H only (115 ± 13 g/day and 30.3 ± 1 kg, respectively). Calves offered the MR had higher number of scour days than those offered milk (13.5 vs. 3.3). The feeding of whole milk in combination with the starter ration and hay resulted in superior growth rates, higher weaning weights, and healthier calves than the other feeding regimens. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Ahmad M.,Buffalo Research Institute | Javed K.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Shahzad W.,Livestock Production Research Institute | Mehmood F.,Livestock Production Research Institute | Khan M.H.,Livestock and Dairy Development Board
Buffalo Bulletin | Year: 2013

Data on 12334 performance records of 9577 Nili-Ravi buffaloes for the parities 1 to 6 in the progeny testing program (PTP) of field areas of 10 districts i.e. Gujrat, Gujranwala, Hafizabad, Kasur, M.B. Din, Bahawalnagar, Faisalabad, Pakpattan, T.T. Singh and Vehari under Buffalo Research Institute, (BRI) Pattoki District Kasur, Punjab, Pakistan during the period 2006 to 2010 were utilized to study some environmental factors affecting the performance traits i.e. lactation length, 305-day milk yield and total lactation yield The data were analyzed by test day model using Statistical Analysis System (SAS 9.3), 2011 for fixed effects. The phenotypic correlations among various performance traits were also estimated. The least squares means for lactation length were 246.3±1.2 days. The 305-day milk yield and total lactation yield were averagely1735.3±8.1 and 1910.2±10.4 kg, respectively. The number of test days ranged from 2 to 10 for 305-day milk yield while it was 2 to 22 for total lactation yield. The phenotypic correlation among these performance traits ranged from 0.75 to 0.95. The regressions of performance traits on lactation length were also estimated. The effect of district, year and season of calving showed highly significant (P<0.01) variation for all the three performance traits while the effect of parity was highly significant (P<0.01) for 305-day milk yield and total lactation yield but non-significant for lactation length, respectively. The improvement in milk production could be achieved through efficient breeding strategy and improvement in nutrition and other management practices.

Shahzad W.,Livestock Production Research Institute | Munir R.,Foot and Mouth Disease Research Center | Asif M.,Livestock Production Research Institute | Sagar M.S.,Livestock Production Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Buffalo Bulletin | Year: 2013

Hemorrhagic septicemia (HS) caused by Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) is a highly fatal and economically devastating bacterial disease of cattle and water buffalo in Asia, Africa and Middle East with highest incidence in South East Asia. P. multocida causes high mortality (up to 52%) in several parts of Pakistan. An outbreak of HS occurred in Nili-Ravi buffalo calves, maintained at Livestock Experiment Station, Bahadurnagar, Okara, Pakistan during summer season of July, 2011. A total number of 80 mouth swab samples from Nili- Ravi buffalo calves were screened for the presence of toxogenic P. multocida type and strain by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Out of these 80 animals, 15 died (18.75%). Among the dead calves, nine (60%) belonged to age group between 9- 12 months, followed by four (26.67%) animals belonged to 6-9 months and two (13.34%) calves of age group above one year. About 460-bp fragment specific for P. multocida subspecies (subsp. multocida, subsp. gallicida, and subsp. septica) was generated with primer pairs KMTISP6 & KMTIT7 in all culturally positive samples. Similarly a product of ~590 bp specific for species and type was amplified by using pairs KTSP61 and KTT72 in all of the samples. The 846 bp fragments were generated in all toxogenic P. multocida positive samples tested with toxA primers. Course of the disease was nearly twelve days. Mortality significantly peaked at 4th days where it was 26.7%. This is almost the first molecular diagnostic report about the prevalence of toxogenic P. multocida field isolates causing the HS disease in Nili-Ravi Buffalo calves at LES, Bahadurnagar, Okara, Pakistan.

Ahmad M.,Buffalo Research Institute | Rafique M.,Livestock Production Research Institute | Ahmad F.,Buffalo Research Institute | Jabbar M.A.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences
Revista Veterinaria | Year: 2010

Three calf starter concentrates containing Maize, Oats and Maize + Oats as a source of energy having 20% crude protein and 80% total digestible nutrients were formulated and fed to three groups of young calves A, B & C, respectively for a period of 90 days. The daily consumption of milk was 3.30, 3.70 and 3.32 litres while daily intake for starter ration and berseem hay was 0.410 & 1.80; 0.320 & 2.25 and 0.372 & 2.00 kg in groups A, B and C, respectively. The feed efficiency for milk was 5.66, 9.44 and 6.99 for concentrates 0.703, 0.816 and 0.783 and for berseem hay 3.09, 5.74 and 4.21 in respective groups. The daily weight gain was 0.583, 0.392 and 0.475 kg in groups A, B and C, respectively. The results revealed that the animals fed on starter ration containing maize as energy source gained 18.57 % and 13.71% more weight and showed better feed efficiency as compared to the calves reared on starter concentrates having Oats or Maize + Oats as a source of energy.

Jawad Z.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Younus M.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Rehman M.U.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Munir R.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences | Year: 2014

Most of the commercial poultry growers use antibiotics for growth promotion and to many disadvantages like higher rearing cost, adverse side effects on health of birds, prolonged withdrawal period and residual effects. Some plants and their extracts improve feed intake and enzymatic activity of the birds. A few of these herbs have antimicrobial, Coccidiostatic or anthelmintic effects. A study was conducted at University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (UVAS), Lahore to see the effects of neem (azadirachta indica) on the hepato-renal functions in broilers chickens. Experiment was conducted on 144 day old commercial broilers chickens for a period of 42 days. The birds were equally divided into three groups; A, B and C with 48 chicks in each group. Each group was further subdivided into four subgroups with 12 birds in each subgroup. Dry neem leaf powder was added in feed of birds @ 2 grams/kg (A1, A2, A3); 4grams/kg (B1, B2, B3) and 6 grams/kg (C1, C2, C3). Subgroups A1, B1and C1were treated from 0-42nd days of their life; subgroups A2, B2and C2 were fed with the herb from14-42 days, whereas subgroups A3, B3and C3 were given neem leaves from 28-42 days. Birds of subgroups A4, B4 and C4 were kept as untreated controls. On 42nd day, significantly (p<0.05) decreased serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate aminotranferase (AST) levels were recorded in birds of subgroups A1, B1, and C1 as compared to other subgroups within their respective main groups. Serum creatinine and especially serum uric acid values showed a decreasing trend with increased level of neem leaf meal. It was concluded that azadirachta indica at limited dose rate might be used as hepatoprotecter in commercial poultry without any toxic effects and it was also concluded that proteins in the diets were more effectively utilized in the neem treated birds.

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