Livestock Production Research Institute

Okāra, Pakistan

Livestock Production Research Institute

Okāra, Pakistan
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Bhatti S.A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ahmed M.F.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Wynn P.C.,Charles Sturt University | McGill D.,Charles Sturt University | And 8 more authors.
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2012

The objective was to study the growth potential of Sahiwal calves given milk or milk replacer with or without concentrates. For this purpose, forty-eight Sahiwal calves were divided into four groups of 12 animals each with equal sex ratio. In each group, the calves were offered either milk or a milk replacer (MR) at a rate of 10% of their body weight adjusted weekly. In addition to this, calves were fed either a starter ration plus Egyptian clover hay (SR + H) or hay only (H) until the end of trial. The milk or MR was withdrawn gradually from day 56 until animals were weaned completely by day 84. Calves offered milk grew faster than those offered MR (357 ± 9 vs. 162 ± 9 g/day; p < 0.05) and displayed higher weaning weights (51.6 ± 0.8 vs. 35.2 ± 0.8 kg; p < 0.05). The calves offered SR + H grew faster (311 ± 9 vs. 208 ± 9 g/day; p < 0.05) and displayed higher weaning weights (48.7 ± 0.8 vs. 38.1 ± 0.8 kg; p < 0.05) than those fed H alone. Calves offered milk plus SR + H showed the highest growth rate and weaning weights (401 ± 13 g/day and 56.3 ± 1 kg, respectively). The lowest growth rate and weaning weights were observed in calves offered MR and H only (115 ± 13 g/day and 30.3 ± 1 kg, respectively). Calves offered the MR had higher number of scour days than those offered milk (13.5 vs. 3.3). The feeding of whole milk in combination with the starter ration and hay resulted in superior growth rates, higher weaning weights, and healthier calves than the other feeding regimens. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Shahzad W.,Livestock Production Research Institute | Yaqoob T.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Mukhtar N.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Munir R.,Foot & Mouth Disease Research Center | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences | Year: 2016

A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the sero-prevalence of CCPP, in five districts of Punjab that is Okara, Faisalabad, Lahore, Bahawalpur and Pakpatan and three Govt. livestock research institutes that is Research and Development Center, Rakh Khare Wala (District Layyah), Barani Livestock Production Research Institute, Kherimorat (District Attock) and Livestock Production Research Institute, Bahadurnagar, Okara. A total of 364 serum samples were collected from July, 2012 to July, 2013, from clinically respiratory distressed and unvaccinated goats of different breeds, age and sex. Samples were subjected to monoclonal antibody-based competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) for the specific measurement of antibodies to Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (Mccp) bacterium. Thirty one out of 364 samples were positive by cELISA indicating overall sero-prevalence of CCPP as 8.52 %. Statistically the proportional prevalence of CCPP in male and female Beetal goats was significantly higher in Faisalabad district and also at Research and Development Center, Rakh Khare Wala (District Layyah) rather than other districts and research centers. The findings of this survey revealed the evidence of goat exposure to Mccp in different districts and research centers in Punjab province, although at a low prevalence. This sero-survey was conducted for the first time in Pakistan by applying the latest cELISA technique, urging the need of control of this economically important disease for resource poor livestock keepers in Pakistan. © 2016, Pakistan Agricultural Scientists Forum. All rights reserved.


Shahzad W.,Livestock Production Research Institute | Munir R.,Veterinary Research Institute | Khan M.S.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Ahmad M.-U.-D.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | And 5 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2012

A study was conducted to characterize caprine mycoplasma species and to know its prevalence in different areas of Pakistan during 2006 to 2007.A total of 1440 samples (including nasal discharge, pleural fluid, lung tissue, synovial fluid, and milk (1180), and 260 sera) were collected from clinically affected goats of different age and sex. These samples were subjected to cultural isolation, growth inhibition test (GIT) using rabbit polyclonal antiserum against Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies capri, latex agglutination test (LAT) for the detection of Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). 121 samples out of 1180 showed turbidity in PPLO broth and 58 of these grew on PPLO agar, showed positive reaction to GIT. No serum sample showed positive reaction with LAT kit. Thirty five were positive for Mycoplasma mycoides cluster through PCR and identified as Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc) through DNA sequencing. Mycoplasmosis is more prevalent in hilly and plain areas (5.8 and 4.5%) than in semi-desert and sub-hilly areas (3.3 and 2.9%). Copyright 2012 Zoological Society of Pakistan.


Ahmad M.,Buffalo Research Institute | Rafique M.,Livestock Production Research Institute | Ahmad F.,Buffalo Research Institute | Jabbar M.A.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences
Revista Veterinaria | Year: 2010

Three calf starter concentrates containing Maize, Oats and Maize + Oats as a source of energy having 20% crude protein and 80% total digestible nutrients were formulated and fed to three groups of young calves A, B & C, respectively for a period of 90 days. The daily consumption of milk was 3.30, 3.70 and 3.32 litres while daily intake for starter ration and berseem hay was 0.410 & 1.80; 0.320 & 2.25 and 0.372 & 2.00 kg in groups A, B and C, respectively. The feed efficiency for milk was 5.66, 9.44 and 6.99 for concentrates 0.703, 0.816 and 0.783 and for berseem hay 3.09, 5.74 and 4.21 in respective groups. The daily weight gain was 0.583, 0.392 and 0.475 kg in groups A, B and C, respectively. The results revealed that the animals fed on starter ration containing maize as energy source gained 18.57 % and 13.71% more weight and showed better feed efficiency as compared to the calves reared on starter concentrates having Oats or Maize + Oats as a source of energy.


Shahzad W.,Livestock Production Research Institute | Abbas A.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Munir R.,Foot and Mouth Disease Research Center | Khan M.S.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2014

Prevalence of Echinococcus granulosus genotype G1 was investigated in 55 cattle, 129 buffaloes, 10 sheep and 10 goat samples by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). These 204 samples were collected from 64 liver and 140 lungs of slaughtered animals from three districts Okara (n= 29), Jhang (n = 43) and Lahore (n= 132). E. granulosus G1 genomic DNA was used for specific amplification of a 254-bp fragment. Twenty five (45.45%) cattle, 78 (60.46%) buffaloes, 2 (20%) sheep and 2 (20%) goat samples were positive for E. granulosus genotype G1. Twenty four (37.5%) liver and 80 (57.14%) lung samples were found positive. The prevalence of E. granulosus genotype G1 was 37.93 % in district Okara, 65.11 % in district Jhang and 50 % in district Lahore. These results indicate that the PCR is valid and sensitive for surveying the disease in epidemiological studies. Copyright 2014 Zoological Society of Pakistan.


Ali A.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Javed K.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Ahmad N.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Rehman S.U.,Livestock Production Research Institute
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences | Year: 2011

Data on 451 records for service period and 405 records for services per conception of Nili-Ravi buffaloes maintained at Livestock Experiment Station, Bahadurnagar, Okara spanned over a period from 1997 to 2006 were analyzed to examine the effect of year, season of calving and parity number. The overall least squares mean for service period and services per conception were 249±15.36 days and 1.99±0.13 numbers, respectively. The longest service period was 353 ±43.86 days in the year 1997 and the shortest service period was 151±27.70 days in the year 2006. When the data set was analyzed to examine the seasonal effect, the maximum least squares mean for service period (297±22.22) was observed days in winter season and minimum in spring season (216±33.01 days). Maximum calving (46.34%) were noted in humid hot season. Animals in first parity took longer period (316±13.58 days) for conception and short service period (221±57.80 days) was in animals having sixth parity number. Statistical analysis showed the highly significant effect of parity on service period (P<0.01). In case of services per conception, the maximum and minimum least squares mean were as 2.29±0.33 numbers in the year 1997 and 1.21±0.24 numbers in the year 2006, respectively. During the hot humid season, animals availed maximum services per conception (2.24±0.16) and minimum number 1.62±0.22 in spring season. Maximum services per conception (2.36±0.31) were recorded in animals when calved fifth time and minimum services per conception (1.69±0.51) after calving sixth time. Years of calving, seasons of calving and parity number had no significant effect on services per conception.


Ahmad M.,Buffalo Research Institute | Javed K.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Shahzad W.,Livestock Production Research Institute | Mehmood F.,Livestock Production Research Institute | Khan M.H.,Livestock and Dairy Development Board
Buffalo Bulletin | Year: 2013

Data on 12334 performance records of 9577 Nili-Ravi buffaloes for the parities 1 to 6 in the progeny testing program (PTP) of field areas of 10 districts i.e. Gujrat, Gujranwala, Hafizabad, Kasur, M.B. Din, Bahawalnagar, Faisalabad, Pakpattan, T.T. Singh and Vehari under Buffalo Research Institute, (BRI) Pattoki District Kasur, Punjab, Pakistan during the period 2006 to 2010 were utilized to study some environmental factors affecting the performance traits i.e. lactation length, 305-day milk yield and total lactation yield The data were analyzed by test day model using Statistical Analysis System (SAS 9.3), 2011 for fixed effects. The phenotypic correlations among various performance traits were also estimated. The least squares means for lactation length were 246.3±1.2 days. The 305-day milk yield and total lactation yield were averagely1735.3±8.1 and 1910.2±10.4 kg, respectively. The number of test days ranged from 2 to 10 for 305-day milk yield while it was 2 to 22 for total lactation yield. The phenotypic correlation among these performance traits ranged from 0.75 to 0.95. The regressions of performance traits on lactation length were also estimated. The effect of district, year and season of calving showed highly significant (P<0.01) variation for all the three performance traits while the effect of parity was highly significant (P<0.01) for 305-day milk yield and total lactation yield but non-significant for lactation length, respectively. The improvement in milk production could be achieved through efficient breeding strategy and improvement in nutrition and other management practices.


Shahzad W.,Livestock Production Research Institute | Altaf M.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Ahmad M.,Livestock Production Research Institute | Munir R.,Foot and Mouth Disease Research Center | And 7 more authors.
Buffalo Bulletin | Year: 2013

Subclinical mastitis is 3 to 40 times more common than clinical mastitis and causes great losses in the dairy herds. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the most common causative agents of subclinical bovine mastitis in dairy cattle worldwide and it has been observed that up to 50 - 100% of herds are infected with this pathogen. To determine prevalence and compare bacterial culture methods and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for diagnosis of subclinical mastitis caused by S. aureus, milk samples from 164 apparently mastitis free Nili-Ravi buffaloes were collected from lactating herd at Livestock Experiment Station, Bahadurnagar Okara. These samples were initially tested by using subclinical mastitis detection kit "CMT Test" and eighteen milk samples (10.97%) were found positive for subclinical mastitis by using this kit. To compare cultural technique with PCR, all these 164 milk samples were cultured on blood agar and the bacteria were identified by standard methods. Ten out of 164 samples showed cultural growth of the organism, thus showing prevalence 6.09% (10 /164) of S. aureus by using conventional culturing technique. DNA was extracted from all 164 milk samples as well as from samples cultured in broth & blood agar plate colonies. All these were then subjected to PCR test with primers STAA-AUI and STAAAVII, for a 420 bp amplicon specific for S. aureus. Thirty two (19.51%) out of 164 milk samples,18 broth culturing and 10 bacterial colonies were found positive for S. aureus by PCR. The results of this study indicate that PCR is sensitive and specific for diagnosis of S. aureus subclinical mastitis and can detect this pathogen in milk samples within few hours in Nili-Ravi buffaloes.


Shahzad W.,Livestock Production Research Institute | Munir R.,Foot and Mouth Disease Research Center | Asif M.,Livestock Production Research Institute | Sagar M.S.,Livestock Production Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Buffalo Bulletin | Year: 2013

Hemorrhagic septicemia (HS) caused by Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) is a highly fatal and economically devastating bacterial disease of cattle and water buffalo in Asia, Africa and Middle East with highest incidence in South East Asia. P. multocida causes high mortality (up to 52%) in several parts of Pakistan. An outbreak of HS occurred in Nili-Ravi buffalo calves, maintained at Livestock Experiment Station, Bahadurnagar, Okara, Pakistan during summer season of July, 2011. A total number of 80 mouth swab samples from Nili- Ravi buffalo calves were screened for the presence of toxogenic P. multocida type and strain by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Out of these 80 animals, 15 died (18.75%). Among the dead calves, nine (60%) belonged to age group between 9- 12 months, followed by four (26.67%) animals belonged to 6-9 months and two (13.34%) calves of age group above one year. About 460-bp fragment specific for P. multocida subspecies (subsp. multocida, subsp. gallicida, and subsp. septica) was generated with primer pairs KMTISP6 & KMTIT7 in all culturally positive samples. Similarly a product of ~590 bp specific for species and type was amplified by using pairs KTSP61 and KTT72 in all of the samples. The 846 bp fragments were generated in all toxogenic P. multocida positive samples tested with toxA primers. Course of the disease was nearly twelve days. Mortality significantly peaked at 4th days where it was 26.7%. This is almost the first molecular diagnostic report about the prevalence of toxogenic P. multocida field isolates causing the HS disease in Nili-Ravi Buffalo calves at LES, Bahadurnagar, Okara, Pakistan.


Rashid M.,Livestock Production Research Institute | Iqbal M.,Livestock Production Research Institute
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences | Year: 2012

Maize is an important Kharief (summer) fodder for animals in Pakistan. Phosphorus is a quality nutrient for fodders. The use of P for maize fodder is negligible. Thus a field study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Phosphorus fertilizer on the yield and quality of maize fodder on a clay loam (calcareous) soil. Adsorption isotherm was constructed by equilibrating 2.5 g soil with 25 ml of 0.01 M CaCl2 solution containing 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 200,300,400 and 500 μg P mL-1 as KH2PO4 and shaking for 24 hour at 20 °C. Phosphorus fertilizer doses were computed by using empirically derived Freundlich equation to adjust soil solution Phosphorus levels of 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, 0.30, 0.35, 0.40, and 0.50 mg P L-1. It was observed that different Phosphorus fertilizer doses were required to adjust different soil solution Phosphorus levels. Adsorption of Phosphorus increased with phosphorus application rate but marginal adsorption decreased significantly. Yield and quality of maize fodder were improved with Phosphorus application. Yield increased upto T8 where Phosphorus was applied @ 53 kg ha-1 but quality traits (P concentration, dry matter, crude protein, crude fiber and ash contents (%) improved with the highest rate of Phosphorus use i.e. 57 kg ha-1. Phosphorus application showed non-significant affect on NDF and ADF contents (%). External and internal Phosphorus requirements of maize fodder to obtain 95 % relative yield were 0.25 mg L-1 and 0.23 mg L-1 respectively.

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