Livestock Improvement Association of Japan Inc.

Maebashi-shi, Japan

Livestock Improvement Association of Japan Inc.

Maebashi-shi, Japan
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Patent
Livestock Improvement Association of Japan Inc. | Date: 2017-01-18

The present invention addresses the problem of developing a simple sperm inspection method and device for reflecting fertility. In the present invention, a simple sperm inspection method and device having a high correlation with fertility can be provided by suspending a sperm population in an inspection liquid and measuring a quality indicator value for each sperm, stratifying the sperm population on the basis of the sperm quality indicator value, and evaluating the quality of the sperm on the basis of the quality indicator value of one or a plurality of groups in the stratified population. This standard can predict fertility with higher precision through use of a graph in which the quality indicator values for individual sperm of the sperm population are arranged in sequence. Sperm motility is preferably used as a sperm quality indicator.


Patent
Livestock Improvement Association of Japan Inc. | Date: 2015-03-12

The present invention addresses the problem of developing a simple sperm inspection method and device for reflecting fertility. In the present invention, a simple sperm inspection method and device having a high correlation with fertility can be provided by suspending a sperm population in an inspection liquid and measuring a quality indicator value for each sperm, stratifying the sperm population on the basis of the sperm quality indicator value, and evaluating the quality of the sperm on the basis of the quality indicator value of one or a plurality of groups in the stratified population. This standard can predict fertility with higher precision through use of a graph in which the quality indicator values for individual sperm of the sperm population are arranged in sequence. Sperm motility is preferably used as a sperm quality indicator.


Tetsuka M.,Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine | Nishimoto H.,Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine | Miyamoto A.,Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine | Okuda K.,Okayama University | Hamano S.,Livestock Improvement Association of Japan Inc
Journal of Reproduction and Development | Year: 2010

Glucocorticoids modulate ovarian function in cattle. However, their regulatory mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we examined gene expression of two glucocorticoid-metabolizing enzymes, a bidirectional 11β-HSD type 1 (11HSD1) and a dehydrogenase 11β-HSD type 2 (11HSD2), and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in bovine follicles during follicular maturation and atresia. Granulosa cells (GCs) and theca interna layers (TIs) were harvested from follicles classified as small growing, dominant, preovulatory, early atretic and late atretic follicles. The expression levels of 11HSD1, 11HSD2 and GR mRNA were quantified by real-time PCR. In the healthy follicles, expression of 11HSD1 mRNA increased as follicles matured, both in GCs and TIs. A significant negative correlation was found between the concentration of cortisol in follicular fluid and the level of 11HSD1 mRNA in GCs. The expression of 11HSD2 and GR was either very low or largely unchanged during follicular maturation. In the atretic follicles, a drastic increase in the expression of 11HSD2 was observed both in GCs and TIs. To assess the effect of FSH on the expression of 11HSDs and GR, GCs were cultured with FSH (0-100 ng/ml) for up to 6 days. FSH increased 11HSD1 mRNA in a dose-dependent manner, but not 11HSD2, nor GR. Taken together, these results suggest that developmentally-regulated 11HSD1 plays a pivotal role in modulating the local glucocorticoid environment in maturing bovine follicles. ©2010 by the Society for Reproduction and Development.


Harikae K.,University of Tokyo | Tsunekawa N.,University of Tokyo | Hiramatsu R.,University of Tokyo | Hiramatsu R.,Osaka Prefectural Hospital Organization | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Reproduction and Development | Year: 2012

During mammalian sex determination of XY fetuses, SRY induces SOX9 in Sertoli cells, resulting in formation of testes with seminiferous tubules, interstitial Leydig cells and peritubular myoid cells. Meanwhile XX fetuses without SRY develop ovaries. In cattle, most XX heifers born with a male twin, so-called freemartins, develop nonfunctioning ovaries and genitalia with an intersex phenotype. Interestingly, freemartins sometimes develop highly masculinized gonads with seminiferous tubule-like structures despite the absence of SRY. However, in these cases, the degree of masculinization in each gonadal somatic cell type is unclear. Here, we report a rare case of a freemartin Japanese black calf with almost complete XX sexreversal. Gross anatomical analysis of this calf revealed the presence of a pair of small testis-like gonads with rudimentary epididymides, in addition to highly masculinized genitalia including a pampiniform plexus, scrotum and vesicular gland. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses of these masculinized gonads revealed well-defined seminiferous tubulelike structures throughout the whole gonadal parenchyma. In epithelia of these tubules, SOX9-positive supporting cells (i.e., Sertoli cells) were found to be arranged regularly along the bases of tubules, and they were also positive for GDNF, one of the major factors for spermatogenesis. 3β-HSD-positive cells (i.e., Leydig cells) and SMA-positive peritubular myoid cells were also identified around tubules. Therefore, for the first time, we found the transdifferentiation of ovarian somatic cells into all testicular somatic cell types in the XX freemartin gonads. These data strongly support the idea of a high sexual plasticity in the ovarian somatic cells of mammalian gonads. © 2012 by the Society for Reproduction and Development.


Miyasaka T.,RIKEN | Miyasaka T.,Nihon University | Takeshima S.-N.,RIKEN | Matsumoto Y.,RIKEN | And 7 more authors.
Gene | Year: 2011

In cattle, bovine leukocyte antigens (BoLAs) have been extensively used as markers for bovine diseases and immunological traits. In this study, we sequenced alleles of the BoLA class II loci, BoLA-DRB3 and BoLA-DQA1, from 650 Japanese cattle from six herds [three herds (507 animals) of Japanese Black cattle and three herds (143 animals) of Holstein cattle] using polymerase chain reaction-sequence-based typing (PCR-SBT) methods. We identified 26 previously reported distinct DRB3 alleles in the two populations: 22 in Japanese Black and 17 in Holstein. The number of DRB3 alleles detected in each herd ranged from 9 to 20. Next, we identified 15 previously reported distinct DQA1 alleles: 13 in Japanese Black and 10 in Holstein. The number of alleles in each herd ranged from 6 to 10. Thus, allelic divergence is significantly greater for DRB3 than for DQA1. A population tree on the basis of the frequencies of the DRB3 and DQA1 alleles showed that, although the genetic distance differed significantly between the two cattle breeds, it was closely related within the three herds of each breed. In addition, Wu-Kabat variability analysis indicated that the DRB3 gene was more polymorphic than the DQA1 gene in both breeds and in all herds, and that the majority of the hypervariable positions within both loci corresponded to pocket-forming residues. The DRB3 and DQA1 heterozygosity for both breeds within each herd were calculated based on the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Only one Japanese Black herd showed a significant difference between the expected and observed heterozygosity at both loci. This is the first report presenting a detailed study of the allelic distribution of BoLA-DRB3 and -DQA1 genes in Japanese Black and Holstein cattle from different farms in Japan. These results may help to develop improved livestock breeding strategies in the future. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Onogi A.,Livestock Improvement Association of Japan Inc. | Nurimoto M.,Livestock Improvement Association of Japan Inc. | Morita M.,Livestock Improvement Association of Japan Inc.
BMC Bioinformatics | Year: 2011

Background: A Bayesian approach based on a Dirichlet process (DP) prior is useful for inferring genetic population structures because it can infer the number of populations and the assignment of individuals simultaneously. However, the properties of the DP prior method are not well understood, and therefore, the use of this method is relatively uncommon. We characterized the DP prior method to increase its practical use.Results: First, we evaluated the usefulness of the sequentially-allocated merge-split (SAMS) sampler, which is a technique for improving the mixing of Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms. Although this sampler has been implemented in a preceding program, HWLER, its effectiveness has not been investigated. We showed that this sampler was effective for population structure analysis. Implementation of this sampler was useful with regard to the accuracy of inference and computational time. Second, we examined the effect of a hyperparameter for the prior distribution of allele frequencies and showed that the specification of this parameter was important and could be resolved by considering the parameter as a variable. Third, we compared the DP prior method with other Bayesian clustering methods and showed that the DP prior method was suitable for data sets with unbalanced sample sizes among populations. In contrast, although current popular algorithms for population structure analysis, such as those implemented in STRUCTURE, were suitable for data sets with uniform sample sizes, inferences with these algorithms for unbalanced sample sizes tended to be less accurate than those with the DP prior method.Conclusions: The clustering method based on the DP prior was found to be useful because it can infer the number of populations and simultaneously assign individuals into populations, and it is suitable for data sets with unbalanced sample sizes among populations. Here we presented a novel program, DPART, that implements the SAMS sampler and can consider the hyperparameter for the prior distribution of allele frequencies to be a variable. © 2011 Onogi et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Patent
Livestock Improvement Association Of Japan Inc. | Date: 2011-12-01

[Problem] To improve the conception chance of semen after cryopreservation by improving conventional straws for artificial insemination. [Solution] A straw for cryopreservation is produced by introducing a partitioning layer into a straw for artificial insemination to separate layers, thereby forming a semen storage layer comprising an aqueous solution containing semen and an anti-freeze agent on one side and a dilution layer containing no anti-freeze agent on the other side, wherein a dilution solution comprising an aqueous solution containing tris(hydroxymethyl aminomethane), citric acid, glucose and sodium chloride is used in the dilution layer.


Patent
Livestock Improvement Association of Japan Inc. | Date: 2013-10-09

[Problem] To improve the conception chance of semen after cryopreservation by improving conventional straws for artificial insemination. [Solution] A straw for cryopreservation is produced by introducing a partitioning layer into a straw for artificial insemination to separate layers, thereby forming a semen storage layer comprising an aqueous solution containing semen and an anti-freeze agent on one side and a dilution layer containing no anti-freeze agent on the other side, wherein a dilution solution comprising an aqueous solution containing tris(hydroxymethyl aminomethane), citric acid, glucose and sodium chloride is used in the dilution layer.


PubMed | Livestock Improvement Association of Japan Inc., Agricultural Research Center and University of Tokyo
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Animal genetics | Year: 2015

Because fatty acid composition influences the flavor and texture of meat, controlling it is particularly important for cattle breeds such as the Japanese Black, characterized by high meat quality. We evaluated the predictive ability of single-step genomic best linear unbiased prediction (ssGBLUP) in fatty acid composition of Japanese Black cattle by assessing the composition of seven fatty acids in 3088 cattle, of which 952 had genome-wide marker genotypes. All sires of the genotyped animals were genotyped, but their dams were not. Cross-validation was conducted for the 952 animals. The prediction accuracy was higher with ssGBLUP than with best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) for all traits, and in an empirical investigation, the gain in accuracy of using ssGBLUP over BLUP increased as the deviations in phenotypic values of the animals increased. In addition, the superior accuracy of ssGBLUP tended to be more evident in animals whose maternal grandsire was genotyped than in other animals, although the effect was small.


PubMed | Livestock Improvement Association of Japan Inc. and Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of dairy science | Year: 2015

Longevity is a crucial economic trait in the dairy farming industry. In this study, our objective was to develop a random regression model for genetic evaluation of survival. For the analysis, we used test-day records obtained for the first 5 lactations of 380,252 cows from 1,296 herds in Japan between 2001 and 2010; this data set was randomly divided into 7 subsets. The cumulative pseudo-survival rate (PSR) was determined according to whether a cow was alive (1) or absent (0) in her herd on the test day within each lactation group. Each lactation number was treated as an independent trait in a random regression multiple-trait model (MTM) or as a repeated measure in a random regression single-trait repeatability model (STRM). A proportional hazard model (PHM) was also developed as a piecewise-hazards model. The average ( standard deviation) heritability estimates of the PSR at 365 d in milk (DIM) among the 7 data sets in the first (LG1), second (LG2), and third to fifth lactations (LG3) of the MTM were 0.0420.007, 0.0700.012, and 0.0840.007, respectively. The heritability estimate of the STRM was 0.0380.004. The genetic correlations of PSR between distinct DIM within or between lactation groups were high when the interval between DIM was short. These results indicated that whereas the genetic factors contributing to the PSR between closely associated DIM would be similar even for different lactation numbers, the genetic factors contributing to PSR would differ between distinct lactation periods. The average ( standard deviation) effective heritability estimate based on the relative risk of the PHM among the 7 data sets was 0.0680.009. The estimated breeding values (EBV) in LG1, LG2, LG3, the STRM, and the PHM were unbiased estimates of the genetic trend. The absolute values of the Spearmans rank correlation coefficients between the EBV of the relative risk of the PHM and the EBV of PSR at 365 DIM for LG1, LG2, LG3, and the STRM were 0.75, 0.87, 0.91, and 0.93, respectively. These results indicated that the EBV of PSR could predict the genetic contribution to survival. The EBV based on the PSR of the STRM was highly correlated with that of the MTM (0.83-0.96). Furthermore, the calculation load of the STRM was lighter than that of the MTM because the rank of the matrix of the STRM was smaller than that of the MTM. These results indicated that the STRM is an appropriate model for estimating survivability by using random regression models.

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