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Sasaki O.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Aihara M.,Livestock Improvement Association of Japan Inc. | Nishiura A.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Takeda H.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Satoh M.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2015

Longevity is a crucial economic trait in the dairy farming industry. In this study, our objective was to develop a random regression model for genetic evaluation of survival. For the analysis, we used test-day records obtained for the first 5 lactations of 380,252 cows from 1,296 herds in Japan between 2001 and 2010; this data set was randomly divided into 7 subsets. The cumulative pseudo-survival rate (PSR) was determined according to whether a cow was alive (1) or absent (0) in her herd on the test day within each lactation group. Each lactation number was treated as an independent trait in a random regression multiple-trait model (MTM) or as a repeated measure in a random regression single-trait repeatability model (STRM). A proportional hazard model (PHM) was also developed as a piecewise-hazards model. The average (± standard deviation) heritability estimates of the PSR at 365 d in milk (DIM) among the 7 data sets in the first (LG1), second (LG2), and third to fifth lactations (LG3) of the MTM were 0.042 ± 0.007, 0.070 ± 0.012, and 0.084 ± 0.007, respectively. The heritability estimate of the STRM was 0.038 ± 0.004. The genetic correlations of PSR between distinct DIM within or between lactation groups were high when the interval between DIM was short. These results indicated that whereas the genetic factors contributing to the PSR between closely associated DIM would be similar even for different lactation numbers, the genetic factors contributing to PSR would differ between distinct lactation periods. The average (± standard deviation) effective heritability estimate based on the relative risk of the PHM among the 7 data sets was 0.068 ± 0.009. The estimated breeding values (EBV) in LG1, LG2, LG3, the STRM, and the PHM were unbiased estimates of the genetic trend. The absolute values of the Spearman's rank correlation coefficients between the EBV of the relative risk of the PHM and the EBV of PSR at 365 DIM for LG1, LG2, LG3, and the STRM were 0.75, 0.87, 0.91, and 0.93, respectively. These results indicated that the EBV of PSR could predict the genetic contribution to survival. The EBV based on the PSR of the STRM was highly correlated with that of the MTM (0.83-0.96). Furthermore, the calculation load of the STRM was lighter than that of the MTM because the rank of the matrix of the STRM was smaller than that of the MTM. These results indicated that the STRM is an appropriate model for estimating survivability by using random regression models. © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Source

Harikae K.,University of Tokyo | Tsunekawa N.,University of Tokyo | Hiramatsu R.,University of Tokyo | Hiramatsu R.,Osaka Medical Center and Research Institute for Maternal and Child Health | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Reproduction and Development | Year: 2012

During mammalian sex determination of XY fetuses, SRY induces SOX9 in Sertoli cells, resulting in formation of testes with seminiferous tubules, interstitial Leydig cells and peritubular myoid cells. Meanwhile XX fetuses without SRY develop ovaries. In cattle, most XX heifers born with a male twin, so-called freemartins, develop nonfunctioning ovaries and genitalia with an intersex phenotype. Interestingly, freemartins sometimes develop highly masculinized gonads with seminiferous tubule-like structures despite the absence of SRY. However, in these cases, the degree of masculinization in each gonadal somatic cell type is unclear. Here, we report a rare case of a freemartin Japanese black calf with almost complete XX sexreversal. Gross anatomical analysis of this calf revealed the presence of a pair of small testis-like gonads with rudimentary epididymides, in addition to highly masculinized genitalia including a pampiniform plexus, scrotum and vesicular gland. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses of these masculinized gonads revealed well-defined seminiferous tubulelike structures throughout the whole gonadal parenchyma. In epithelia of these tubules, SOX9-positive supporting cells (i.e., Sertoli cells) were found to be arranged regularly along the bases of tubules, and they were also positive for GDNF, one of the major factors for spermatogenesis. 3β-HSD-positive cells (i.e., Leydig cells) and SMA-positive peritubular myoid cells were also identified around tubules. Therefore, for the first time, we found the transdifferentiation of ovarian somatic cells into all testicular somatic cell types in the XX freemartin gonads. These data strongly support the idea of a high sexual plasticity in the ovarian somatic cells of mammalian gonads. © 2012 by the Society for Reproduction and Development. Source

Tetsuka M.,Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine | Nishimoto H.,Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine | Miyamoto A.,Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine | Okuda K.,Okayama University | Hamano S.,Livestock Improvement Association of Japan Inc.
Journal of Reproduction and Development | Year: 2010

Glucocorticoids modulate ovarian function in cattle. However, their regulatory mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we examined gene expression of two glucocorticoid-metabolizing enzymes, a bidirectional 11β-HSD type 1 (11HSD1) and a dehydrogenase 11β-HSD type 2 (11HSD2), and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in bovine follicles during follicular maturation and atresia. Granulosa cells (GCs) and theca interna layers (TIs) were harvested from follicles classified as small growing, dominant, preovulatory, early atretic and late atretic follicles. The expression levels of 11HSD1, 11HSD2 and GR mRNA were quantified by real-time PCR. In the healthy follicles, expression of 11HSD1 mRNA increased as follicles matured, both in GCs and TIs. A significant negative correlation was found between the concentration of cortisol in follicular fluid and the level of 11HSD1 mRNA in GCs. The expression of 11HSD2 and GR was either very low or largely unchanged during follicular maturation. In the atretic follicles, a drastic increase in the expression of 11HSD2 was observed both in GCs and TIs. To assess the effect of FSH on the expression of 11HSDs and GR, GCs were cultured with FSH (0-100 ng/ml) for up to 6 days. FSH increased 11HSD1 mRNA in a dose-dependent manner, but not 11HSD2, nor GR. Taken together, these results suggest that developmentally-regulated 11HSD1 plays a pivotal role in modulating the local glucocorticoid environment in maturing bovine follicles. ©2010 by the Society for Reproduction and Development. Source

Livestock Improvement Association Of Japan Inc. | Date: 2011-12-01

[Problem] To improve the conception chance of semen after cryopreservation by improving conventional straws for artificial insemination. [Solution] A straw for cryopreservation is produced by introducing a partitioning layer into a straw for artificial insemination to separate layers, thereby forming a semen storage layer comprising an aqueous solution containing semen and an anti-freeze agent on one side and a dilution layer containing no anti-freeze agent on the other side, wherein a dilution solution comprising an aqueous solution containing tris(hydroxymethyl aminomethane), citric acid, glucose and sodium chloride is used in the dilution layer.

Sasaki O.,National Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science | Aihara M.,Livestock Improvement Association of Japan Inc. | Hagiya K.,National Livestock Breeding Center | Nishiura A.,National Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science | And 2 more authors.
Animal Science Journal | Year: 2012

The objective of this study was to confirm the stability of the genetic estimation of longevity of the Holstein population in Japan. Data on the first 10 lactation periods were obtained from the Livestock Improvement Association of Japan. Longevity was defined as the number of days from first calving until culling or censoring. DATA1 and DATA2 included the survival records for the periods 1991-2003 and 1991-2005, respectively. The proportional hazard model included the effects of the region-parity-lactation stage-milk yield class, age at first calving, the herd-year-season, and sire. The heritabilities on an original scale of DATA1 and DATA2 were 0.119 and 0.123, respectively. The estimated transmitting abilities (ETAs) of young sires in DATA1 may have been underestimated, but coefficient δ, which indicated the bias of genetic trend between DATA1 and DATA2, was not significant. The regression coefficient of ETAs between DATA1 and DATA2 was very close to 1. The proportional hazard model could steadily estimate the ETA for longevity of the sires in Japan. © 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science. Source

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