North West England, United Kingdom

Liverpool Hope University

www.hope.ac.uk
North West England, United Kingdom

Liverpool Hope University is a public university in Liverpool, England. As the only ecumenical university in Europe its work has been shaped by Christian principles but embraces those of all faiths and none. The university comprises three faculties – Arts and Humanities, Education, and Science – organised into 19 departments.The university has two campuses, the main Hope Park campus is located in the leafy suburb of Childwall and the second campus, The Creative Campus, is located in Everton, close to the city centre. The university attracts students from some 65 countries worldwide. Liverpool Hope has the highest number of doctorates amongst its staff of all the post-92 universities in England and the best retention rate against benchmark of all the universities in the North West of England. Wikipedia.

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News Article | May 24, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

People may try to make someone else feel negative emotions if they think experiencing those emotions will be beneficial in the long run, according to new research published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science. The findings expand on previous research by revealing that people may sometimes seek to induce negative emotions in others for altruistic reasons, not simply for their own pleasure or benefit. "We have shown that people can be 'cruel to be kind'--that is, they may decide to make someone feel worse if this emotion is beneficial for that other person, even if this does not entail any personal benefit for them," explains psychological scientist Belén López-Pérez, who conducted the research while at the University of Plymouth and is currently at Liverpool Hope University. "These results expand our knowledge of the motivations underlying emotion regulation between people." In other studies, researchers had shown that people may sometimes seek to worsen others' mood for their own personal gain. Based on their own work examining altruistic behavior, López-Pérez and colleagues Laura Howells and Michaela Gummerum wondered whether there might be circumstances under which people would try to worsen others' mood for altruistic reasons. "We identified several everyday examples where this might be the case--for instance, inducing fear of failure in a loved one who is procrastinating instead of studying for an exam," López-Pérez says. The researchers hypothesized that prompting participants to take another person's perspective might make them more likely to choose a negative experience for that person if they thought the experience would help the individual reach a specific goal. To test their hypothesis, they recruited 140 adults to participate in a lab-based study that involved playing a computer game with an anonymous partner, known as Player A. In reality, the participants were always assigned the role of Player B and there was no actual Player A. After receiving a note supposedly written by Player A, some participants were asked to imagine how Player A felt, while others were told to remain detached. The note described Player A's recent breakup and how upset and helpless Player A felt about it. Then, participants were asked to play a video game so they could then make decisions for Player A on how the game would be presented. Depending on the experimental condition participants were assigned to, half were asked to play Soldier of Fortune, a first-person shooter game with an explicit goal of killing as many enemies as possible (i.e., confrontation goal). The other half were asked to play Escape Dead Island, a first-person game with the explicit goal of escaping from a room of zombies (i.e., avoidance goal). After playing the assigned game, the participants listened to some music clips and read short game descriptions that varied in their emotional content. The participants used scales to rate how much they wanted their partner to listen to each clip and read each description (from 1 = not at all to 7 = extremely). They also rated the extent to which they wanted their partner to feel angry, fearful, or neutral and how useful these emotions would be in playing the game. The players were awarded raffle tickets for a chance at winning £50 based on their performance in the game -- participants were reminded that their choices might impact the other participants' performance and, therefore, their own chances of winning the £50. The results showed that the participants who empathized with Player A focused on inducing specific emotions in their partner, depending on the ultimate goal of their computer game. Compared with participants who had remained detached, those who empathized with Player A and who played the first-person shooter game seemed to focus specifically on inducing anger in Player A explicitly and implicitly (i.e., by choosing the anger-inducing music clips and game description), while those who had empathized with Player A and who played the zombie game focused specifically on inducing fear (i.e., by choosing the fear-inducing music clips and game description). "What was surprising was that affect worsening was not random but emotion-specific," says López-Pérez. "In line with previous research, our results have shown that people hold very specific expectations about the effects that certain emotions may have and about which emotions may be better for achieving different goals." The study suggests that empathy led people to choose particular negative emotional experiences that they believed would ultimately help their partner be successful in the context of the game. "These findings shed light on social dynamics, helping us to understand, for instance, why we sometimes may try to make our loved ones feel bad if we perceive this emotion to be useful to achieve a goal," López-Pérez concludes. Michaela Gummerum was partly funded by Economic and Social Research Council Grant ES/K000942/1. Additional funding was provided by the School of Psychology at Plymouth University. For more information about this study, please contact: Belén López-Pérez at lopezpb@hope.ac.uk. The article abstract is available online: http://journals. The APS journal Psychological Science is the highest ranked empirical journal in psychology. For a copy of the article "Cruel to Be Kind: Factors Underlying Altruistic Efforts to Worsen Another Person's Mood" and access to other Psychological Science research findings, please contact Anna Mikulak at 202-293-9300 or amikulak@psychologicalscience.org.


News Article | May 25, 2017
Site: www.sciencedaily.com

People may try to make someone else feel negative emotions if they think experiencing those emotions will be beneficial in the long run, according to new research published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science. The findings expand on previous research by revealing that people may sometimes seek to induce negative emotions in others for altruistic reasons, not simply for their own pleasure or benefit. "We have shown that people can be 'cruel to be kind' -- that is, they may decide to make someone feel worse if this emotion is beneficial for that other person, even if this does not entail any personal benefit for them," explains psychological scientist Belén López-Pérez, who conducted the research while at the University of Plymouth and is currently at Liverpool Hope University. "These results expand our knowledge of the motivations underlying emotion regulation between people." In other studies, researchers had shown that people may sometimes seek to worsen others' mood for their own personal gain. Based on their own work examining altruistic behavior, López-Pérez and colleagues Laura Howells and Michaela Gummerum wondered whether there might be circumstances under which people would try to worsen others' mood for altruistic reasons. "We identified several everyday examples where this might be the case -- for instance, inducing fear of failure in a loved one who is procrastinating instead of studying for an exam," López-Pérez says. The researchers hypothesized that prompting participants to take another person's perspective might make them more likely to choose a negative experience for that person if they thought the experience would help the individual reach a specific goal. To test their hypothesis, they recruited 140 adults to participate in a lab-based study that involved playing a computer game with an anonymous partner, known as Player A. In reality, the participants were always assigned the role of Player B and there was no actual Player A. After receiving a note supposedly written by Player A, some participants were asked to imagine how Player A felt, while others were told to remain detached. The note described Player A's recent breakup and how upset and helpless Player A felt about it. Then, participants were asked to play a video game so they could then make decisions for Player A on how the game would be presented. Depending on the experimental condition participants were assigned to, half were asked to play Soldier of Fortune, a first-person shooter game with an explicit goal of killing as many enemies as possible (i.e., confrontation goal). The other half were asked to play Escape Dead Island, a first-person game with the explicit goal of escaping from a room of zombies (i.e., avoidance goal). After playing the assigned game, the participants listened to some music clips and read short game descriptions that varied in their emotional content. The participants used scales to rate how much they wanted their partner to listen to each clip and read each description (from 1 = not at all to 7 = extremely). They also rated the extent to which they wanted their partner to feel angry, fearful, or neutral and how useful these emotions would be in playing the game. The players were awarded raffle tickets for a chance at winning £50 based on their performance in the game -- participants were reminded that their choices might impact the other participants' performance and, therefore, their own chances of winning the £50. The results showed that the participants who empathized with Player A focused on inducing specific emotions in their partner, depending on the ultimate goal of their computer game. Compared with participants who had remained detached, those who empathized with Player A and who played the first-person shooter game seemed to focus specifically on inducing anger in Player A explicitly and implicitly (i.e., by choosing the anger-inducing music clips and game description), while those who had empathized with Player A and who played the zombie game focused specifically on inducing fear (i.e., by choosing the fear-inducing music clips and game description). "What was surprising was that affect worsening was not random but emotion-specific," says López-Pérez. "In line with previous research, our results have shown that people hold very specific expectations about the effects that certain emotions may have and about which emotions may be better for achieving different goals." The study suggests that empathy led people to choose particular negative emotional experiences that they believed would ultimately help their partner be successful in the context of the game. "These findings shed light on social dynamics, helping us to understand, for instance, why we sometimes may try to make our loved ones feel bad if we perceive this emotion to be useful to achieve a goal," López-Pérez concludes.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA | Phase: ICT-2013.8.1 | Award Amount: 1.09M | Year: 2013

This project aims to bridge communities of creators with communities of technology providers and innovators, in a collective, strategic intelligence/roadmapping effort to streamline, coordinate and amplify collaborative work towards developing, enhancing, and mainstreaming new ICT technologies and tools by addressing the needs of different sectors of the creative industries (e.g. art, culture, publishing, design etc.)\n\nDespite the profound impact of ICT in most of societys daily activities, ICT engagement with art seems to have been left a bit behind. To fill this gap, ICT use could help make art more widely accessible, more inclusive, and generate significant awareness around it. The project will involve creators who currently use ICT tools in their everyday creative practices, and engage them in a collective dialogue with ICT researchers and developers, with a focus of empowering creators by giving them access to new forms of facilitation, enhancement, and contextualization of the creative process and its product--the artistic inspiration, pursuit, and possibilities, as well as the artwork itself. The focus will be the future ICT R&D agenda, which will develop new tools for supporting the creative processes as well as enhancing and improving existing tools and platforms to be more adapted to, or to better care for, the needs of specific creators groups. Thus, the project will also contribute to overcoming the existing fragmentation in efforts by bringing together the relevant stakeholder communities, and to the creation of a critical mass of ICT and creative communities working together. The main target users will be individual creators/workers and professionals, as well as SMEs, creative groups, communities, and organizations. Main results will include recommendations for policy, planning, and decision making for the creative industries community and convergent plans (roadmaps) for specific future actions and initiatives developments for each creative sector.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: EURO-3-2014 | Award Amount: 2.74M | Year: 2015

In 2013, as a response to rising inequalities, poverty and distrust in the EU, the Commission launched a major endeavour to rebalance economic and social policies with the Social Investment Package (SIP). RE-InVEST aims to strengthen the philosophical, institutional and empirical underpinnings of the SIP, based on social investment in human rights and capabilities. Our consortium is embedded in the Alliances to Fight Poverty. We will actively involve European citizens severely affected by the crisis in the co-construction of a more powerful and effective social investment agenda with policy recommendations. This translates into the following specific objectives: 1. Development of innovative methodological tools for participative research, involving mixed teams of researchers, NGO workers and people from vulnerable groups in the co-construction of knowledge on social policy issues; 2. Diagnosis of the social damage of the crisis in terms of (erosion of) human rights, social (dis)investment, loss of (collective) capabilities; 3. Analysis of the relationships between the rise of poverty and social exclusion, the decline of social cohesion and trust, and the threats to democracy and solidarity in the EU; 4. Development of a theoretical model of social investment, with a focus on the promotion of human rights and capabilities; 5. Application of this model to active labour market policies and social protection: evaluation of policy innovations through qualitative and quantitative analyses; 6. Application of the same model to public intervention in five selected basic service markets: water provision, housing, early childhood education, health care and financial services, through qualitative and quantitative analyses; 7. Analysis of the macro-level boundary conditions for successful implementation of the SIP; 8. Capacity building in civil society organisations for the promotion of the European social investment agenda, through networking and policy recommendations.


Sultan N.,Liverpool Hope University
International Journal of Information Management | Year: 2010

Educational establishments continue to seek opportunities to rationalize the way they manage their resources. The economic crisis that befell the world following the near collapse of the global financial system and the subsequent bailouts of local banks with billions of tax payers' money will continue to affect educational establishments that are likely to discover that governments will have less money than before to invest in them. It is argued in this article that cloud computing is likely to be one of those opportunities sought by the cash-strapped educational establishments in these difficult times and could prove to be of immense benefit (and empowering in some situations) to them due to its flexibility and pay-as-you-go cost structure. Cloud computing is an emerging new computing paradigm for delivering computing services. This computing approach relies on a number of existing technologies, e.g., the Internet, virtualization, grid computing, Web services, etc. The provision of this service in a pay-as-you-go way through (largely) the popular medium of the Internet gives this service a new distinctiveness. In this article, some aspects of this distinctiveness will be highlighted and some light will be shed on the current concerns that might be preventing some organizations from adopting it. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Sultan N.A.,Liverpool Hope University
International Journal of Information Management | Year: 2011

Cloud computing is an emerging new computing paradigm for delivering computing services. The approach relies on a number of existing technologies e.g., the Internet, virtualization and grid computing. However, the provision of this service in a pay-as-you-go way through the popular medium of the Internet renders this computing service approach unique compared with currently available computing service modalities. This article highlights some aspects of this uniqueness and also explores some of the concerns that might be preventing some companies from adopting it. Notwithstanding these concerns, it is argued in this article that cloud computing is likely to prove commercially viable for many small and medium enterprises (SMEs) due to its flexibility and pay-as-you-go cost structure, particularly in the current climate of economic difficulties. A case study of a cloud experience by a British SME is also presented in this study in order to further highlight the perceived values of cloud computing in terms of cost and efficiency for real small enterprises. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Grant
Agency: GTR | Branch: AHRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 8.21K | Year: 2014

Elena Boschis research has focused on popular music in cinema, which necessarily demands an expertise in how to understand low attention cultural consumption. Moreover, given her particular interest in British, Spanish, and Italian Cinema, she has developed theoretical approaches that are culturally-infused, combining formal analysis with an attention to social and political issues. Her background in popular music studies and film studies, and her current position as a lecturer in the Department of Media and Communication at Liverpool Hope University mean that Elena can offer the necessary interdisciplinary perspective that developing this expert workshop requires. She has served on the organising committee of the Biennial Conference of the International Association of Popular Music Studies at the University of Liverpool (2009) and has recently received internal funding to host a one-day symposium on Gender and Sexuality in British Cinema after Thatcher, which will result in a special issue of selected proceedings for the Journal of British Cinema and Television. She has co-edited with Anahid Kassabian and Marta García Quiñones (co-investigators in this project) the collection Ubiquitous Musics (Ashgate, 2013).


Grant
Agency: GTR | Branch: EPSRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 92.02K | Year: 2015

It is predicted that Internet video streaming and downloads will account for more than 76 percent of all consumer Internet traffic in 2018. The tremendous growth of multimedia traffic has given rise to the demand for highly scalable and efficient content retrieval and dissemination in the Internet. However, the Internet was originally designed to enable host-to-host communication and lacks natural support for content distribution. In this context, Information-Centric Networking (ICN) has emerged as a new paradigm for future Internet, where the network interprets, processes, and delivers name-identified content to the users independently of the host location. ICN deploys in-network caching that enables content to be retrieved from multiple locations to achieve low dissemination latency and network traffic reduction. Serving as its fundamental building block, efficient in-network caching is vitally important for ICN. The distinct features of in-network caching such as transparency, ubiquity and fine-granularity have made traditional caching theory, models and optimization approaches inapplicable to ICN caches. Therefore, significant research efforts have been devoted to tackling the very challenging problem of in-network caching. The existing research works have been primarily focused on the simulation studies of ICN caching. However, analytical modelling of ICN cache networks is indispensable for the understanding of the intrinsic behaviors and features of in-network caching. The analytical models reported in the current literature for ICN mainly adopt unrealistic assumptions, such as independent reference model and unknown chunk-level object popularity, and are commonly based on the inefficient Leave Copy Everywhere (LCE) cache decision policy only. Furthermore, due to both increasing energy cost and CO2 emission, energy efficiency of networks and systems becomes a dramatically growing concern. Consequently, energy-efficiency of ICN has also been investigated by some studies, which are mainly based on unrealistic models of topology and content requests. To the best of our knowledge, analytical modelling and optimization of cache resource allocation for energy-efficient information-centric networking with transparent, ubiquitous and fine-granular caches has not been reported in the existing literature. This project will investigate in-network cache resource allocation to achieve energy-efficient and timely content dissemination in the context of Information-Centric Networks. To tackle this challenging problem progressively, our work will be focused on three major tasks: 1) design of an intelligent cache decision policy with low complexity for ICN to reduce cache redundancy, increase the cache diversity and leverage the correlation between content requests; 2) development of novel analytical tools for evaluating the energy efficiency and performance of the proposed cache decision policy in terms of cache hit ratio and request response time with multimedia applications and heterogeneous network conditions; 3) development of a centralized optimization algorithm to investigate the impact of traffic conditions and network environments on the efficiency of cache allocation and a distributed cache allocation scheme that allocates appropriate cache locations of content chunks to minimize the energy consumption. The insights into energy-efficient cache allocation obtained in the aforementioned Tasks 1 and 2 will be feed into the distributed management scheme design in Task 3. The research proposed in the project is believed to among the first of its kind on the analysis and optimization of in-network cache allocation for energy-efficient ICN. The implications of this research will contribute directly to ICN in-network caching in both theoretical and practical sides and pave the way for future green Internet with multimedia applications.


Paramei G.V.,Liverpool Hope University
Journal of the Optical Society of America A: Optics and Image Science, and Vision | Year: 2012

Color discrimination was estimated using the Cambridge Colour Test (CCT) in 160 normal trichromats of four life decades, 20-59 years of age. For each age cohort, medians and tolerance limits of the CCT parameters are tabulated. Compared across the age cohorts (Kruskal-Wallis test), the Trivector test showed increases in the three vectors, Protan, Deutan, and Tritan, with advancing age; the Ellipses test revealed significant elongation of the major axes of all three ellipses but no changes in either the axis ratio or the angle of the ellipse major axis. Multiple comparisons (Mann-Whitney test) between the cohorts of four age decades (20+;...; 50+) revealed initial benign deterioration of color discrimination in the 40+ decade, as an incremental loss of discrimination along the Deutan axis (Trivector test), and in the 50+ decade, as an elongation of the major axes of all three ellipses (Ellipses test). © 2012 Optical Society of America.


Grant
Agency: GTR | Branch: AHRC | Program: | Phase: Fellowship | Award Amount: 49.68K | Year: 2012

Incorporating culturally unfamiliar sound into ones own creative output has been an increasingly popular activity among electroacoustic music composers over the last few years; yet work of this nature is difficult to develop without being accused of appropriation or exploitation, and even of indulging in a contemporary version of musical exoticism, with its overtones of nineteenth-century colonialism. This project will explore the inclusion of cultural-specific sound in new electroacoustic music works (composition using technology to explore, create and perform sounds) by working collaboratively with Indian musicians and UK audiences for Indian music. Unlike traditional note-based instrumental music, which may engage with exotic musics through evocation, electroacoustic music can express exotic sound quotations literally, via audio sampling. This research will examine the process of collecting and incorporating Indian cultural sounds originating from Indian musical instruments into two new electroacoustic music compositions. The project, coordinated and supported by Milapfest (the UKs National Indian Arts Trust) based at Liverpool Hope University, will enable interaction with world-renowned musicians to establish a unique collaborative experience investigating the perceptions and understanding of cultural sound (that is, sound experienced as culturally specific). Practice-led research (composition work) will question the openness of the electroacoustic music sound world through the borrowing of sounds from a culture different to my own cultural background and experience, and will be documented in the form of an online research blog and presented more formally in a new journal article. The musical output, testing a variety of methodologies, techniques and tools to disguise or emphasise cultural manifestation in electroacoustic music creation will build upon a discourse concerning the benefits, implications and issues of cultural sound use. Through these outputs, this research aims to address a current lack of contextual documentation on the now-frequent act of incorporating culturally unfamiliar sound into creative output. Public concert presentation of the new works will unite the usually separate worlds of Indian music and electroacoustic music, while audience perspectives will collate public reception of exotic sound via interviews and questionnaires. Research dissemination at the International Computer Music Conference (ICMC) and Electronic Music Studies Network conference (EMS) will encourage further scholarly interest in, and consideration of, creative uses of cultural sound, while exposing aspects of Indian music to a research field traditionally unacquainted with these practices. Further to this, creating an online sound archive from the Indian musical instrument recordings will establish a freely-accessible education and research resource appearing within Milapfests online portal. Commissioning new electroacoustic music works making use of the sound archive will continue the researchs influence and impact beyond the projects funded duration.

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