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Tucson, AZ, United States

Boyer T.D.,Liver Research Institute | Kaplan B.,University of Arizona
Clinical Liver Disease | Year: 2013

Watch a video presentation of this article. © 2013 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

Boyer T.D.,Liver Research Institute | Sanyal A.J.,Virginia Commonwealth University | Garcia-Tsao G.,Yale University | Regenstein F.,Tulane University | And 7 more authors.
Liver Transplantation | Year: 2011

The development of hepatorenal syndrome type 1 (HRS1) is associated with a poor prognosis. Liver transplantation improves this prognosis, but the degree of the improvement is unclear. Most patients receive vasoconstrictors such as terli-pressin before transplantation, and this may affect the posttransplant outcomes. We examined a cohort of patients with access to liver transplantation from our previously published study of terlipressin plus albumin versus albumin alone in the treatment of HRS1. The purpose of this analysis was the quantification of the survival benefits of liver transplantation for patients with HRS1. Ninety-nine patients were randomized to terlipressin or placebo. Thirty-five patients (35%) received a liver transplant. Among those receiving terlipressin plus albumin, the 180-day survival rates were 100% for transplant patients and 34% for nontransplant patients; among those receiving only albumin, the rates were 94% for transplant patients and 17% for nontransplant patients. The survival rate was significantly better for those achieving a reversal of he-patorenal syndrome (HRS) versus those not achieving a reversal (47% versus 4%, P < 0.001), but it was significantly lower for the responders versus those undergoing liver transplantation (97%). We conclude that the use of terlipressin plus albumin has no significant impact on posttransplant survival. Liver transplantation offers a clear survival benefit to HRS1 patients regardless of the therapy that they receive or the success or failure of HRS reversal. The most likely benefit of terli-pressin in patients undergoing liver transplantation for HRS1 is improved pretransplant renal function, and this should make the posttransplant management of this difficult group of patients easier. For patients not undergoing transplantation, HRS reversal with terlipressin and/or albumin improves survival.© 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

Lee S.-A.,Liver Research Institute | Kim B.-R.,Liver Research Institute | Kim B.-K.,Liver Research Institute | Kim D.-W.,Liver Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Biomaterials | Year: 2013

A reverse-transcriptase-subunit of telomerase (hTERT) derived peptide, GV1001, has been developed as a vaccine against various cancers. Here, we report an unexpected function of GV1001 as a cell-penetrating peptide (CPP). GV1001 was delivered into a variety of cells including various cancer cell lines and primary blood cells. Moreover, the delivered GV1001 was predominantly located in the cytoplasm of the cells, while a significantly higher proportion of TAT peptide was localized in the nucleus. Macromolecules such as proteins, DNA and siRNA, which were linked to GV1001 by direct covalent conjugation or non-covalent complexation through poly-lysine, were successfully delivered into cells, indicating that GV1001 can be used as a carrier for macromolecules. Expression of the delivered DNA, and lowered expression of the target gene by the delivered siRNA, suggest the potential therapeutic use of GV1001. Pull-down analysis identified Heat Shock Protein 90 (HSP90) and 70 (HSP70) as GV1001 interacting proteins. Treatment of Anti-HSP90 and HSP70 antibodies lowered the internalization of GV1001, indicating that the interaction is critical for the efficient internalization of GV1001. Collectively, the results of this study suggest the pharmaceutical potential of GV1001, already proven safe in clinical trials, as a carrier for the delivery of macromolecular therapeutics into cells, in addition to its own anti-cancer activity. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Kim B.-K.,Liver Research Institute | Kim B.-R.,Liver Research Institute | Lee H.-J.,Liver Research Institute | Lee S.-A.,Liver Research Institute | And 6 more authors.
Biomaterials | Year: 2014

A reverse-transcriptase-subunit of telomerase (hTERT) derived peptide, GV1001, has been developed as a vaccine against various cancers. Previously, we have shown that GV1001 interacts with heat shock proteins (HSPs) and penetrates cell membranes to be localized in the cytoplasm. In this study, we have found that GV1001 lowered the level of intracellular and surface HSPs of various cancer cells. In hypoxic conditions, GV1001 treatment of cancer cells resulted in decreases of HSP90, HSP70, and HIF-1α. Subsequently, proliferation of cancer cells and synthesis of VEGF were significantly reduced by treatment using GV1001 in hypoxic conditions. In an experiment using a nude mouse xenograft model, GV1001 exerted a similar tumor suppressive effect, further confirming its anti-tumor efficacy. Higher apoptotic cell death, reduced proliferation of cells, and fewer blood vessels were observed in GV1001-treated tumors compared to control. In addition, significant reduction of Tie2+ CD11b+ monocytes, which were recruited by VEGF from tumor cells and play a critical role in angiogenesis, was observed in GV1001-treated tumors. Collectively, the results suggest that GV1001 possesses potential therapeutic efficacy in addition to its ability to induce anti-cancer immune responses by suppressing both HSP70 and HSP90. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Paik W.H.,Liver Research Institute | Ryu J.K.,Liver Research Institute | Ryu J.K.,Seoul National University | Park J.M.,Liver Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2013

AIM: To identify clinical and pathological differences between serum immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-positive (SIP) and IgG4-negative (SIN) type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) in South Korea. METHODS: AIP was diagnosed by the international consensus diagnostic criteria. The medical records and pathology were retrospectively reviewed and IgG4-positive cells were counted in a high power field (HPF). Type I AIP was defined as a high serum level of IgG4 or histological finding. SIN type 1 AIP was defined as a histological evidence of type 1 AIP and a normal serum IgG4 level. The clinical and pathological findings were compared between the two groups. The analysis was performed using Student's t test, Fischer's exact test and Mann-Whitney's U test. A P value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. As repeated comparison was made, P values of less than 5% (P < 0.05) were considered significant. RESULTS: Twenty five patients with definite type 1 AIP (19 histologically and six serologically diagnosed cases) were enrolled. The mean tissue IgG4 concentrations were significantly higher in SIP than SIN group (40 cells per HPF vs 18 cells per HPF, P = 0.02). Among eight SIN patients, the tissue IgG4 concentrations were less than 15 cells per HPF in most of cases, except one. The sensitivity of serum IgG4 was 68% (17 SIP and eight SIN AIP). Other organ involvement was more frequently associated with SIP than SIN AIP (59% vs 26%, P = 0.016). However, the relapse rate and diffuse swelling of the pancreas were not associated with serum IgG4 level. The concentrations of IgG4-positive cells per HPF were higher in SIP than SIN AIP (40 vs 18, P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: The sensitivity of serum IgG4 was 68% in type 1 AIP. High serum IgG4 level was associated with other organ involvement and tissue IgG4 concentration but did not affect the relapse rate in type 1 AIP. © 2013 Baishideng. All rights reserved.

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