Kiesel A.L.,Saint Josephs University |
Snekser J.L.,LIU Post |
Ruhl N.,Ohio University |
McRobert S.P.,Saint Josephs University
Behaviour | Year: 2012
While many behavioural syndrome studies focus on individual-level correlations of behaviors across various contexts, it is also possible to examine these syndromes on a population level, comparing various species or groups. In this study we tested wild type zebrafish (Danio rerio), longfin zebrafish (Danio rerio lof mutants) and the closely related pearl danio (Danio albolineatus) to determine whether aggression and boldness varied and whether population-level differences in these behavioural types were linked to differences in shoaling preferences among the three Danio types. We found significant differences in overall levels of boldness and aggression between the three Danio groups. Pearl danios were the most 'aggressive' type, and wildtype zebrafish were relatively 'passive'. In contrast, wildtype zebrafish showed the most 'boldness' while longfin zebrafish were comparatively 'shy'. We also found subsequent differences in social behaviour, with pearl danios showing significant preferences for conspecific shoals. Our results indicate that fish may not only be making social decisions based on the behaviour, health and appearance of potential shoal mates, but their own temperament may be important in mediating social interactions as well. © 2012 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden.
Hand R.K.,Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics |
Burrowes J.D.,LIU Post
Journal of Renal Nutrition | Year: 2015
Objective: This study was designed to determine what job responsibilities renal dietitians working in outpatient dialysis facilities consider as most important and most time-consuming. We hypothesized that more time-consuming activities would not always be considered most important. Design and Participants: An online survey was sent to 3,382 renal dietitians via professional organization e-mail lists. The survey included 30 activities that renal dietitians perform, grouped into 3 categories (general responsibilities, assessments, and interventions) and based on the National Kidney Foundation-Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative nutrition guidelines. For each category of activities, respondents were asked to rank the 10 activities from 1 (most important or time-consuming) to 10 (least important or time-consuming). For analysis, the rankings were combined into 3 groups: 1 to 3 = most; 4 to 6 = mid; and 7 to 10 = least important or time-consuming. Demographic and professional questions were also included. Results: Four hundred sixty six renal dietitians responded, and represented a broad range of experience in renal dietetics and type of dialysis facility. The mean number of patients per 40 hours full-time equivalent dietitian was 115.5 ± 38.4. There was good agreement between the respondents' ranking of importance and time consumed. Those activities identified as most important were traditional dietitian roles such as diet assessment and nutrition education. Many respondents provided write-in response of other activities they considered important and time-consuming such as communicating with family members or caregivers, enrolling and managing patients in the in-house pharmacy program, and serving as a care coordinator. Conclusions: It appears that the renal dietitian's role of providing nutrition assessments and counseling in outpatient dialysis facilities is being expanded to include administrative and coordination responsibilities. The impact of these changes on patient outcomes is unclear; however, previous research has indicated that administrative responsibilities take away from patient care time and decrease dietitian job satisfaction. © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc.
Snekser J.L.,LIU Post |
Itzkowitz M.,Lehigh University
Ethology | Year: 2014
Biparental care of young occurs when both parents provide some sort of care for offspring and can include a wide variety of behaviors, yet often studies focus on single aspects of parental care when trying to determine how each parent contributes. Here, we presented the biparental convict cichlid fish (Amatitlania nigrofasciata) with two conflicting parental behaviors: retrieval of non-swimming offspring that have been displaced from the nest and defense against a conspecific intruder, a potential brood predator. We examined single males, single females, and pairs of parents to determine how males and females each contributed to overall parental care. Traditionally in this species, parents exhibit a division of labor (in which each parent contributes to all parental activities), but also exhibit a division of roles (in which males tend to favor the role of defense and females tend to favor more direct care, spending more time with offspring). We hypothesized that single parents would compensate for their absent mate, but that males and females would still favor preferred roles. Additionally, we hypothesized that there would be an asymmetrical expansion of roles, with females being more flexible. Our results show that the preferred roles of both parents were evident even when parents were without their mates and that males and females differed in their compensatory levels, at least when compared to the behaviors of the intact pair. Contrary to our prediction, females seem unable to fully compensate for the defensive behaviors usually exhibited by males, while males shifted completely to retrieve displaced offspring. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Kennelly P.J.,LIU Post
URISA Journal | Year: 2013
This study examines 101 geospatial projects and the perception of participating geospatial professionals on their success. It organizes their discussion of technical aspects of the work and managerial problems that arose within the frameworks of the geographic information science and technology (GIS&T) and the project management (PM) bodies of knowledge (BoK), respectively. Based on this author's appraisal of projects perceived as failure-prone (those perceived as failures, containing significant pitfalls, or of uncertain outcome by the professionals), technical issues are rarely cited as the cause of failure-prone projects, and integration of more numerous GIS&T BoK knowledge areas are associated with a smaller percentage of failure-prone projects. Results also reveal that most failure-prone projects have serious management issues in more than one nonfacilitating knowledge area of the PM BoK, a trend that could be useful in tracking at the onset of a project at risk of being failure-prone. Finally, by mapping managerial problems within PM BoK knowledge areas to GIS&T knowledge areas, this study identifies problems in particular managerial areas for projects with particular GIS&T components. Such competency-based approaches will allow geospatial project managers and professionals to better plan projects and recognize common pitfalls.
Bannister R.,Pennsylvania State University |
Kennelly P.,LIU Post
Groundwater | Year: 2016
Hydrogeologists often are called upon to estimate surfaces from discrete, sparse data points. This estimation is often accomplished by manually drawing contours on maps using interpolation methods between points of known value while accounting for features known to influence the water table's surface. By contrast, geographic information systems (GIS) are good at creating smooth continuous surfaces from limited data points and allowing the user to represent the resulting surface resulting with contours, but these automated methods often fail to meet the expectations of many hydrogeologists because they do not include knowledge of other influences on the water table. In this study, we seek to fill this gap in the GIS-based methodology for hydrogeologists through an interactive tool that shapes an interpolated surface based on additional knowledge of the water table inferred from gaining or losing streams. The modified surface is reflected in water table contours that, for example, "V" upstream for gaining streams, and can be interactively adjusted to fit the user's expectations. By modifying not only the contours but also the associated interpolated surface, additional contours will follow the same trend, and the modified surface can be used for other analyses like calculating average gradients and flow paths. The tool leverages Esri's ArcGIS Desktop software, building upon a robust suite of mapping tools. We see this as a prototype for other tools that could be developed for hydrogeologists to account for variations in the water table inferred from local topographic trends, pumping or injection wells, and other hydrogeologic features. © 2016, National GroundWater Association.