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Guglielmotto M.,University of Turin | Giliberto L.,Litwin Zucker Research Center for the Study of Alzheimers Disease | Tamagno E.,University of Turin | Tabaton M.,University of Genoa
Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience | Year: 2010

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting the elderly population. Mechanistically, the major cause of the disease bases on the altered processing of the amyloid-β (Aβ) precursor protein (APP), resulting in the accumulation and aggregation of neurotoxic forms of Aβ. Aβ derives from the sequential proteolytic cleavage of the β- and γ-secretases on APP. The causes of Aβ accumulation in the common sporadic form of AD are not completely known, but they are likely to include oxidative stress (OS). OS and Aβ are linked to each other since Aβ aggregation induces OS in vivo and in vitro, and oxidant agents increase the production of Aβ. Moreover, OS produces several effects that may contribute to synaptic function and cell death in AD. We and others have shown that the expression and activity of β-secretase (named BACE1; β-site APP cleaving enzyme) is increased by oxidant agents and by lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal and that there is a significant correlation between BACE1 activity and oxidative markers in sporadic AD. OS results from several cellular insults such as aging, hyperglycemia, hypoxic insults that are all well known risk factors for AD development. Thus, our data strengthen the hypothesis that OS is a basic common pathway of Aβ accumulation, common to different AD risk factors. © 2010 Guglielmotto, Giliberto, Tamagno and Tabaton. Source

Kirkwood C.M.,University of Pittsburgh | MacDonald M.L.,University of Pittsburgh | Schempf T.A.,University of Pittsburgh | Vatsavayi A.V.,University of Massachusetts Medical School | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology | Year: 2016

Recent studies have implicated the neuronal calcium-sensing protein visinin-like 1 protein (Vilip-1) as a peripheral biomarker in Alzheimer disease (AD), but little is known about expression of Vilip-1 in the brains of patients with AD. We used targeted and quantitative mass spectrometry to measure Vilip-1 peptide levels in the entorhinal cortex (ERC) and the superior frontal gyrus (SF) from cases with early to moderate stage AD, frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), and cognitively and neuropathologically normal elderly controls. We found that Vilip-1 levels were significantly lower in the ERC, but not in SF, of AD subjects compared to normal controls. In FTLD cases, Vilip-1 levels in the SF were significantly lower than in normal controls. These findings suggest a unique role for cerebrospinal fluid Vilip-1 as a biomarker of ERC neuron loss in AD. Source

Ifteni P.,Transilvania University of Brasov | Grudnikoff E.,Zucker Hillside Hospital | Koppel J.,Hofstra North Shore | Koppel J.,Litwin Zucker Research Center for the Study of Alzheimers Disease | And 10 more authors.
International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry | Year: 2015

Objective Treatment with haloperidol has been shown, in studies using death certificates and prescription files, to be associated with an excess of sudden cardiac deaths, and regulatory warnings highlight this risk in patients with dementia. We used autopsy findings to determine whether the rate of sudden cardiac death is greater in cases of unexpected deaths of patients with dementia treated with haloperidol. Methods From 1989 through 2013, 1219 patients with a primary diagnosis of dementia with behavioral disturbance were admitted to a psychiatric hospital, and 65 (5.3%) died suddenly. Sixty-five patients (5.3%) died unexpectedly. Complete post-mortem examinations after the sudden death were performed in 55 (84.6%) patients. Twenty-seven of the autopsied cases (49.1%) had been treated with haloperidol orally (2.2mg ± 2.1 mg/day), the only antipsychotic used in this cohort. Univariable comparisons and multivariable regression analyses compared the groups of patients with or without sudden cardiac death. Results The leading causes of death were sudden cardiac death (32.7%), myocardial infarction (25.5% of patients), pneumonia (23.6%), and stroke (10.9%). Patients with sudden cardiac death and those with anatomically established cause of death were similar regarding the use of haloperidol (p = 0.5). Sudden cardiac death patients were more likely to suffer from Alzheimer's dementia (p = 0.027) and to have a past history of heart disease (p = 0.0094), and less likely to have been treated with a mood stabilizer (p = 0.024), but none of these variables were independent predictors of sudden cardiac death. Conclusion Autopsy data suggest that oral haloperidol is not associated with increased risk of sudden cardiac death in psychiatric inpatients with dementia. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Vingtdeux V.,Litwin Zucker Research Center for the Study of Alzheimers Disease | Vingtdeux V.,Feinstein Institute for Medical Research | Vingtdeux V.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Vingtdeux V.,Lille University of Science and Technology | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Cell Science | Year: 2015

Alzheimer's disease is characterized by amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide accumulation in the brain. CALHM1, a cell-surface Ca2+ channel expressed in brain neurons, has anti-amyloidogenic properties in cell cultures. Here, we show that CALHM1 controls Aβ levels in vivo in the mouse brain through a previously unrecognized mechanism of regulation of Aβ clearance. Using pharmacological and genetic approaches in cell lines, we found that CALHM1 ion permeability and extracellular Ca2+ were required for the Aβ-lowering effect of CALHM1. Aβ level reduction by CALHM1 could be explained by an increase in extracellular Aβ degradation by insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), extracellular secretion of which was strongly potentiated by CALHM1 activation. Importantly, Calhm1 knockout in mice reduced IDE enzymatic activity in the brain, and increased endogenous Aβ concentrations by up to ~50% in both the whole brain and primary neurons. Thus, CALHM1 controls Aβ levels in cell lines and in vivo by facilitating neuronal and Ca2+-dependent degradation of extracellular Aβ by IDE. This work identifies CALHM1 ion channel as a potential target for promoting amyloid clearance in Alzheimer's disease. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd. Source

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