Little River Band of Ottawa Indians

Manistee, MI, United States

Little River Band of Ottawa Indians

Manistee, MI, United States
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Sanders R.L.,Little River Band of Ottawa Indians | Cornman A.,Little River Band of Ottawa Indians | Keenlance P.,Grand Valley State University | Jacquot J.J.,Grand Valley State University | And 2 more authors.
American Midland Naturalist | Year: 2017

American marten are associated with forests that are characteristically late successional, closed canopy, and diverse in structure; these attributes meet their habitat requirements and provide resting sites. However, the small populations of marten in Michigan's Northern Lower Peninsula face modern habitat conditions that are fragmented and considerably altered from presettlement environments. Resting site structures are required habitat components that are used daily and provide protection from predation and inclement weather but may be limiting and require active management to preserve. We identified resting site characteristics of American marten in the Manistee National Forest from May 2011 to December 2013. Twenty-five marten (15 male and 10 female) were monitored to identify resting sites. We identified 522 unique resting site structures; tree cavities (n = 255, 48.9%), branches (n = 162, 31%), and nests (n = 90, 17.2%) were most commonly observed. During the summer (April-September) marten used more exposed tree branches (41.8%); while in the winter (October-March) they used more cavities (64.5%). Marten used structures that were associated with high percent canopy closure (≥67%). Resting sites were found in live trees 86% of the time, and the three predominant species included oak (Quercus spp.), maple (Acer spp.), and red pine (Pinus resinosa). Trees used as resting sites had significantly larger mean diameter at breast height (DBH) than the average DBH of nonresting site trees found at resting site locations (U′ = 268721, P = < 0.001). The average stand basal area (x = 33.92 ± 9.04 m2 ha) found in resting site plots was significantly larger than that found at control plots (x = 31.10 ± 8.69 m2 ha, P = 0.007). Maintaining complex forest structure, abundant CWD, high percent canopy closure and high basal area should be considered when managing for marten. Silvicultural techniques that promote tree species diversity, older tree age classes, and retention of CWD are all important factors to consider when managing for marten.


Spriggs M.C.,Mesker Park Zoo & Botanic Garden | Spriggs M.C.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | Muller L.I.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | Keenlance P.,Grand Valley State University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Wildlife Diseases | Year: 2017

Seventy-two free-ranging American martens (Martes americana) in Michigan, US were immobilized using isoflurane from 2011 to 2015. In total, 129 anesthetic procedures were performed with no mortalities. Hypothermia and hyperthermia were the most common anesthetic complications, and the mean rectal temperatures were significantly higher during summer than in winter. Dental abnormalities were common; the majority of abnormal findings were broken or discolored teeth attributed to previous dental trauma and were not trap-induced. Blood (n=72) was analyzed from 53 martens for venous blood gas, lactate, hematocrit, and/or selected serum biochemistry analytes. Lactate concentration was measured by two different devices (VetScan i-STAT 1 and Lactate Plus) and compared for clinical agreement for 26 samples. Both methods for lactate measurement provided statistically similar results. Using domestic feline reference ranges, the acid-base status and relative arterial oxygen saturation of anesthetized martens in this study were normal as determined by blood pH and pulse oximetry, respectively. Serum biochemistry parameters, multiple environmental parameters, and marten-specific attributes were evaluated for their influence on lactate in American martens using linear regression and an information-theoretic approach with model averaging. Blood urea nitrogen was in all of the top models and was positively related to lactate (β=0.02, 95% confidence interval: 0.00–0.04). Initial body temperature, ambient temperature, and time from trap discovery until immobilization of martens were informative predictors for lactate level. Recommendations for the live-trapping and isoflurane anesthesia of free-ranging martens include using caution during warmer summer months, minimizing disturbance prior to induction, monitoring lactate in addition to vital rates, and being prepared to prevent or treat both hypothermia and hyperthermia during any time of year. © Wildlife Disease Association 2017.


Deboer J.A.,Grand Valley State University | Deboer J.A.,Nebraska Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit | Ogren S.A.,Little River Band of Ottawa Indians | Holtgren J.M.,Little River Band of Ottawa Indians | Snyder E.B.,Grand Valley State University
American Midland Naturalist | Year: 2011

Resident fish exhibited higher short-term resiliency than did non-resident fish to a 100 y flood in a low-gradient stream. In Jun. 2008, a substantial flood (400% higher than mean daily discharge) occurred in the Big Manistee River watershed in Michigan. Pre-and post-flood fish communities were sampled at two sites on Bear Creek, a 4th order tributary of the Big Manistee River. One site was low-gradient and dominated by sand; the second site was higher gradient and dominated by large woody debris and fine gravel. At both sites, post-flood fish communities were similar to pre-flood communities (Morisita's Index (Im) ≈ 0.8), especially for resident fish (Im ≈ 0.95). Total Catch Per Unit Effort (CPUE) of non-resident fish declined dramatically (5.2 to 1.4 fish per minute) in post-flood surveys, whereas CPUE of resident fish increased slightly (4.3 to 4.7) post-flood. Individual species response was site-dependent and mixed: CPUE of mottled sculpin and burbot increased post-flood, whereas CPUE of other resident species decreased. Resident non-native (i.e., rainbow trout) and non-resident non-native salmonids (i.e., Chinook salmon) experienced the most negative response, suggesting life-history traits of native fish encompass evolutionary adaptations to better persist through extreme disturbance events as compared to non-native salmonids. © 2011, American Midland Naturalist.


Mann K.A.,Little River Band of Ottawa Indians | Marty Holtgren J.,Little River Band of Ottawa Indians | Auer N.A.,Michigan Technological University | Ogren S.A.,Little River Band of Ottawa Indians
North American Journal of Fisheries Management | Year: 2011

A streamside rearing facility (SRF) on the Big Manistee River, Michigan, was constructed for the purpose of rearing larval and age-0 lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens. Size, movement, and habitat selection were studied from 2007 to 2008 to determine whether there were differences between age-0 lake sturgeon reared in the streamside facility and natural cohorts. Lake sturgeon reared streamside showed no significant difference in length from their wild counterparts. Movement patterns were studied by attaching external radio transmitters to 17 age-0 streamside (198-250 mm total length) and 17 age-0 wild lake sturgeon (206-262 mm). The average weekly distances traveled by SRF fish ranged from 0.05-2.28 km (of 46 km surveyed) while wild fish traveled 0.04-2.81 km. In the river sections sampled, sand, pebble, and gravel comprised over 92.5% of the encountered substrates and Strauss index values indicated no differences in the presence of wild and SRF sturgeon over these substrates. Age-0 lake sturgeon were most often found in water 1.7mdeep with a velocity of 0.5 m/s, and no statistically significant differences were observed between wild and SRF sturgeon for either depth or velocity during the study years. By September, streamside-reared age-0 lake sturgeon attained a size similar to that of their wild cohorts and exhibited similar movement patterns and substrate association. © American Fisheries Society 2011.


Ogren S.A.,Little River Band of Ottawa Indians | Huckins C.J.,Michigan Technological University
Ecological Indicators | Year: 2014

Researchers and managers within the Upper Midwest currently use a variety of sampling methodologies and biological indices to assess ecological condition of stream systems. With multiple entities collecting bioassessment data it is important that we determine the comparability of data and the indices derived from these data for effective assessment of natural systems. In this study we assessed the similarity of data collected by different agencies and we focused on data from one watershed to examine the outputs of different indices for stream assessment, and the temporal variation of index score within sites. We compared duplicate macroinvertebrate community data collected by the Little River Band of Ottawa Indians and the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality for overall community composition and index scores derived from these data. Duplicate samples were similar in composition index scores. Taxonomic resolution was addressed and indicated that genus level resolution gives a more favorable score when using indices. We also evaluated the utility of currently available macroinvertebrate indices of biotic integrity to assess data from the Big Manistee River watershed. The indices evaluated were the Hilsenhoff biotic index, the benthic community index for the Northern Lakes and Forests (NLFBCI), the Great Lakes Environmental Assessment Survey (GLEAS) procedure 51 for macroinvertebrates and a biological condition gradient model for the Upper Midwest. Outputs from the indices were moderately correlated (Spearman rank order correlation, r = 0.35-0.698) though they indicated different assessments of overall site integrity. Compared with larger scale regional indices, locally calibrated indices generally classified sites as having better biological condition. Replicate samples collected within sites indicated the GLEAS had higher levels of variability (0-265%CV) within sites than the other indices (<10%CV). Data from long-term (10 year) monitoring stations were used to evaluate seasonal and long-term index performance. There were differences in index score classifications from spring and fall samples indicating that standardization of sampling time is necessary for comparative analysis. Temporal trends over 10 years reveal natural variation and set the baseline for evaluating the influence of anthropogenic effects. Overall, results indicate that choice of index can alter assessment of site condition. For bioassessment in the Big Manistee River watershed the NLFBCI performs well and accurately reflects site condition. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Murray B.D.,Michigan Technological University | Holmes S.A.,U.S. Department of Interior | Webster C.R.,Michigan Technological University | Witt J.C.,Little River Band of Ottawa Indians
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Opportunities to directly study infrequent forest disturbance events often lead to valuable information about vegetation dynamics. In mesic temperate forests of North America, stand-replacing crown fire occurs infrequently, with a return interval of 2000-3000 years. Rare chance events, however, may have profound impacts on the developmental trajectories of forest ecosystems. For example, it has been postulated that stand-replacing fire may have been an important factor in the establishment of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) stands in the northern Great Lakes region. Nevertheless, experimental evidence linking hemlock regeneration to non-anthropogenic fire is limited. To clarify this potential relationship, we monitored vegetation dynamics following a rare lightning-origin crown fire in a Wisconsin hemlock-hardwood forest. We also studied vegetation in bulldozer-created fire breaks and adjacent undisturbed forest. Our results indicate that hemlock establishment was rare in the burned area but moderately common in the scarified bulldozer lines compared to the reference area. Early-successional, non-arboreal species including Rubus spp., Vaccinium angustifolium, sedges (Carex spp.), grasses, Epilobium ciliatum, and Pteridium aquilinium were the most abundant post-fire species. Collectively, our results suggest that competing vegetation and moisture stress resulting from drought may reduce the efficacy of scarification treatments as well as the usefulness of fire for preparing a suitable seedbed for hemlock. The increasing prevalence of growing-season drought suggests that silvicultural strategies based on historic disturbance regimes may need to be reevaluated for mesic species. © 2012 Murray et al.

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