Lithuanian Veterinary Academy

Kaunas, Lithuania

Lithuanian Veterinary Academy

Kaunas, Lithuania
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The animals used in the study were females and castrated male hybrids from Lithuanian indigenous wattle pigs and their backcross with wild boar, containing 1/4 of wild boar. The muscles of hybrid pigs had a higher content of dry matter (P<0.05) than the muscles of purebred Lithuanian indigenous wattle pigs. The introgression of wild boar into Lithuanian indigenous wattle pigs under conventional rearing conditions slightly decreased (P=0.072) the proportion of saturated fatty acids, including C18:0 (P<0.05) in intramuscular fat. Although the introgression of wild boar did not appear to affect significantly the proportions of MUFA, the concentration of the individual (C20:1) fatty acid was lower (P<0.05) in the meat from 1/4 WB genotype. The proportions of PUFA were insignificantly higher in the intramuscular fat of 1/4 WB genotype compared with purebred Lithuanian indigenous wattle pigs. The introgression of wild boar had a higher effect on the proportions of fatty acids in the subcutaneous tissue compared with the effect on the proportions of fatty acids in the intramuscular fat. The concentrations of SFA (P<0.001) were lower in the subcutaneous tissue of 1/4 WB genotype compared with Lithuanian indigenous wattle pigs. The hybrids had lower concentrations of SFA (P<0.001), including C16:0 (P=0.081), C18:0 (P<0.001) and C20:0 (P=0.052) acids and higher concentration of C16:1 (P<0.05), lower concentration of C20:1 (P<0.01) and higher concentrations of PUFA (P<0.05). Also, there was a more favourable PUFA/SFA ratio (P<0.01) in the subcutaneous tissue of hybrids compared with purebred pigs. Gender had a higher effect on the fatty acid composition in the intramuscular fat and subcutaneous tissue from Lithuanian indigenous wattle pigs compared with the gender effect on the fatty acid composition in 1/4 WB genotype hybrids.

Jatkauskas J.,Lithuanian Veterinary Academy | Vrotniakiene V.,Lithuanian Veterinary Academy
Veterinarni Medicina | Year: 2010

Twenty Lithuanian Black-and-White calves (10 bulls, 10 heifers) were used to evaluate the effects of the supplemental probiotic product, Enterococcus faecium M74 (2.4 g/day/calve), added to fresh milk and skimmed milk in a 56 day-study. The probiotic was administered by dietary supplementation to first group of calves and their respective pens (probiotic group), whereas the second group (control group) received no probiotic supplementation. The results of this trial indicate positive effects of the probiotic product Enterococcus faecium M74. The actual percentage of calves with diarrhoea was reduced from 50 % to 20% among the calves fed the pre-and probiotic diet. Probiotic supplementation reduced the faecal count of clostridia and enterococci. The calves fed Enterococcus faecium M74 weighed more at 20, 40 and 62 days of age by 4.9%, by 9.7% (P < 0.05) and by 9.4% (P < 0.01), respectively, than the control calves. The calves fed Enterococcus faecium M74 had increased daily weight gains compared with the calves not fed a probiotic product. The average weight gain and the daily weight gain of the probiotic-supplemented calves were by 7.8 kg (P < 0.01) and by 0.14 kg higher (P < 0.01) compared with the control calves. The calves given the Enterococcus faecium M74 also had forage and total DM intakes that were numerically higher than those fed the control diet, without any additive. During the 56 days experimental period, the average feed conversion rate was improved by 12.9% in the probiotic-treated group.

The aim of performed study was to determine the milking speed heritability and fenotypic and genetic correlation with productivity, milk yield and somatic cell count in Lithuanian Black-and White cows. The experiment on 2799 Black-and-White cows in 13 farms was performed. Milking speed heritability was estimated by model using fixed lactation and random lactation day, herd - year - season and additive - genetic sire effects. Variation of investigated traits heritability was from 0.118 to 0.232. Analyze of phenotypic correlation showed positive and statistical significant (p<0.001) correlation coefficients between milkability traits. Statistical significant positive (p<0.001) correlations were estimated between milk yield and milkability traits (rp = 0.179 - 0.442). Correlation between somatic cells count in cows milk, high milk flow and milking speed was negativly statistical significant (rp = -0.039, p<0.05). Analyze of genetic correlation showed strong positive genetic correlation (rg = 0.673 - 0.872, p<0.001) between milkability traits. Positive statistical significant correlation was between milk yield and milking speed (rg = 0.290 - 0.421, p<0.001). Genetic correlation between somatic cells count in cows milk and milkability traits was fractionally positive statistical significant (rg = 0.024 - 0.031; p<0.05). These results demonstrate that it is appropriate to perform mass cows selection and genetic evaluation by BLUP method of milkability traits in the entire country. © Lithuanian Veterinary Academy.

Bartkiene E.,Lithuanian Veterinary Academy | Juodeikiene G.,Kaunas University of Technology | Basinskiene L.,Kaunas University of Technology | Liukkonen K.-H.,Finnish Food Safety Authority | And 2 more authors.
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2011

The aim of this work was to investigate the production of enterolactone (ENL) and enterodiol (END) both enterolignans, from their precursors by the action of intestinal microflora and their relationship with non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) in common plant foods such as berries and vegetables. For the investigation of the bioconversion of plant lignans the technique of in vitro fermentation was used and the quantitative analysis of their metabolites ENL and END was performed by HPLC with coulometric electrode array detection. The enterolignan production from various berries ranged from 7.8 to 382.8 nmol/g as well as from vegetables - from 10.5 till 91.2 nmol/g. By comparing different kind of berries, the cloudberry, raspberry, and strawberry were the best enterolignan producers. Considering vegetables, potatoes produced the highest quantity of total enterolignans. Garlic, zucchini and broccoli were the other good producers of enterolignans in this product group. The quantitative relationship between NSP components and their associated lignan metabolites were determined. The results showed that there is a correlation between the particularities of fermented food matrices and the production of enterolignans. For berries, an intermediate correlation was found between the total NSP and ENL values. For vegetables, higher correlations between NSP and END were found. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Sirvaityte J.,Kaunas University of Technology | Siugzdaite J.,Lithuanian Veterinary Academy | Valeika V.,Kaunas University of Technology
Revista de Chimie | Year: 2011

The aim of the study was to investigate the possibility to use the commercial essential oils of Eucalyptus slobulus and Lavandulae officinalis as alternative presewatives for various tanned leather. The analyses have shown the differences between commercial essential oils from different producers. It was determined that these differences did not have influence on antibacterial activity of essential oils or their mixture with leather fatliqourins emulsion. As a main result of this study, it is concluded that selected commercial essential oils can be used as presewation agents in leather tanning industry The received results have shown that leather presewed with 2-(thiocyanomthylthio) benzothiazole (TCMTB) have weaker protection after 24 weeks comparing with the samples treated with essential oil of Lavandulae officinalis.

Kudirkiene E.,Lithuanian Veterinary Academy | Buneviciene J.,Lithuanian Veterinary Academy | Brondsted L.,Copenhagen University | Ingmer H.,Copenhagen University | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2011

While cross-contamination from equipment and scalding water containing Campylobacter jejuni is considered the main route of broiler carcass contamination during slaughtering, alternative sources of C. jejuni may have been overlooked because only a limited number of studies focus on sampling of one broiler flock along the entire food chain and not many include the slaughterhouse environment. In the present study we have traced the changes of C. jejuni genotypes within one broiler flock from the beginning of rearing to the final product at the slaughterhouse with the aim to evaluate the dynamics and possible sources of carcass contamination with C. jejuni. Genotyping of 345 isolates of C. jejuni by flaA-RFLP revealed ten different flaA genotypes of C. jejuni along the broiler meat production chain. Broiler fillets were mainly contaminated with flaA genotypes found on the surfaces of slaughterhouse equipment and in the scalding water after cleaning and disinfection. Finally, it was clearly demonstrated that C. jejuni isolates remaining in the slaughterhouse environment after disinfection is a potential source of broiler meat contamination. Thus, identification of the mechanisms that allow such strains to persist in the slaughterhouse and survive cleaning is important for the establishment of future practices that will ensure sufficient reduction of C. jejuni in the slaughterhouse environment. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Kudirkiene E.,Lithuanian Veterinary Academy | Malakauskas M.,Lithuanian Veterinary Academy | Malakauskas A.,Lithuanian Veterinary Academy | Bojesen A.M.,Copenhagen University | Olsen J.E.,Copenhagen University
Journal of Applied Microbiology | Year: 2010

Aims: The aim of the study was to investigate the flock prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in broiler farms in Lithuania and to identify possible persistent strains of Camp. jejuni using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) typing method. Methods and Results: During 1 year, 42 broiler flocks from 9 broiler farms were examined to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter-positive broiler flocks in Lithuania. Among 42 broiler flocks examined, 31 flocks (73·8%) were positive for Camp. jejuni and 17 flocks (40·48%) for Camp. coli. Campylobacter jejuni isolates were genotyped by AFLP method using BspDI and BglII restriction enzymes. Typing of 190 isolates generated 50 AFLP genotypes with the highest diversity of strains found in the summer season. Each farm showed one or more predominant AFLP types, and one AFLP type (A32) was found in five broiler farms over a 1-year period. Conclusions: Campylobacter jejuni and Camp. coli are highly prevalent in broiler farms in Lithuania. Farm-specific genotypes were identified in all farms examined. Type A32 was present and persisted in different broiler farms, and a common source of transmission of Camp. jejuni was suspected. Significance and Impact of the Study: For the first time, Camp. jejuni in broiler flocks has been genetically characterized in Lithuania. Persistent strains of Camp. jejuni were detected over one period at the beginning of broiler meat production chain and, therefore, the identification of contamination source of such strains and the mechanism of their particular ability to persist are crucial to establish effective control measures against Camp. jejuni infection in broiler farms. © 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

Baliukoniene V.,Lithuanian Veterinary Academy | Bakutis B.,Lithuanian Veterinary Academy | Januskeviciene G.,Lithuanian Veterinary Academy | Miseikiene R.,Milking Training Center
Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences | Year: 2011

The impact of two tillage systems (conventional and no-tillage) on cereal contamination with fungi and Fusarium mycotoxins was investigated. Samples of soil, cereal seeds, seedlings and freshly harvested grain were taken from plots of an agricultural cooperative in Lithuania. All samples were subjected to mycological analyses. Grain samples were also used for analysis of mycotoxins. In the soil under no-tillage, contamination with fungai spores was 92.9% higher compared to the soil under conventional tillage. In the soil of the no-tillage system we found 20 fungal genera, while in the soil under conventional tillage the number of genera was 15% lower. On cereal seedlings in the no-tillage system fungal spore content was 24.6% higher (P>0.05) and detection frequency of Fusarium fungi was 22.9% higher (P>0.05) than on seedlings in the conventional system. During harvest in feeding grain grown in the conventional tillage system, 2.2-8.0 log 10 CFU g -1 fungal spores were detected, compared to 2.5-12.0 log 10 CFU g -1 in grain in the no-tillage system. A significantly higher grain contamination with Fusarium spp. was detected in the no-tillage system. However, the deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and T-2 toxin content of grain was not considerably influenced by the different tillage systems, although it varied between species.

Ribikauskas V.,Lithuanian Veterinary Academy | Ribikauskiene D.,Lithuanian Veterinary Academy | Skurdeniene I.,Lithuanian Veterinary Academy
World Rabbit Science | Year: 2010

In the same room of an experimental rabbit house 2 housing systems were compared, namely three pens to keep rabbits on bedding and six wire cages for unbedded rabbit keeping. In total, 69 New Zealand White crossbred rabbits 8-12 wk old were used in the study. The rabbits were kept in groups with 0.6 m 2 floor area per animal in pens with thinly scattered straw. Wire cages had no bedding and there were 4 rabbits in each cage and 0.4 m2 floor area per rabbit. The study lasted for 8 wk. Rabbit behaviour was observed once 1 wk for 24 h. Behaviour was recorded using a scan sampling every hour. Results were analysed by calculating the percentage frequency of each behaviour. Behaviour analysis according to the keeping method indicated that rabbits kept on bedding spent on average less time resting and grooming (41.53% and 5.18% vs. 53.60% and 8.48%) and more time eating (29.86% vs. 18.03%, respectively) in comparison with those kept in wire cages. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between environmental temperature, illumination, ammonia and carbon dioxide gas concentrations and activity of rabbits. © WRSA UPV 2003.

Miezeliene A.,KTU Food Institute | Alencikiene G.,KTU Food Institute | Gruzauskas R.,Lithuanian Veterinary Academy | Barstys T.,Lithuanian Veterinary Academy
Biotechnology, Agronomy and Society and Environment | Year: 2011

Currently there is a focus on the development of functional poultry products capable of enrichment by selenium, vitamin E, iodine and fatty acids of the third order. Since there is a lack of data about various selenium sources and its synergistic effect on sensory and other properties of vitamin E enriched poultry, the objective of this research was to examine the effect of addition of selenium in broilers diet on meat quality. The amount of Se in the diet was increased from 0.15 mgkg 1 feed (control group) to 0.5 mg. kg 1 feed. Addition of Se had no signifcant effect (p > 0.05) on cooking and thawing losses, as well as on the majority of sensory attributes, adhesiveness, cohesiveness of chicken breast samples. Aftertaste (p < 0.05), hardness (p < 0.001) and resilience (p < 0.001) of the texture of the samples increased along with the increased amount of Se in bird diet. Mean values of the sensory attributes of thigh muscles showed no signifcant differences among the samples in case of intensities of odor and taste attributes; however, rmness and chewiness of the tested samples increased by increasing the amount of Se in the feed (p > 0.05). In addition, Se did not have signifcant infuence on meat cooking or thawing losses. The results of this study showed that 0.15 mg and 0.5 mg of selenium in complex with 40 mg of vitamin E could be added to broiler diet without having negative effect on technological or sensory properties of the broiler meat and acceptability.

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