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Kadzienz G.,Lithuanian Research Center for Agriculture and Forestry | Munkholm L.J.,University of Aarhus | Mutegi J.K.,University of Aarhus
Geoderma | Year: 2011

Many studies have reported impeded root growth in topsoil under reduced tillage or direct drilling, but few have quantified the effects on the least limiting water range for root growth. This study explored the effects of tillage intensity on critical soil physical conditions for root growth in the topsoil. Samples were taken from a 7-year tillage experiment on a Danish sandy loam at Foulum, Denmark (56°30' N, 9°35' E) in 2008. The main crop was spring barley followed by either dyer's woad (Isatis tinctoria L.) or fodder radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cover crops as subtreatment. The tillage treatments were direct drilling (D), harrowing 8-10. cm (H), and ploughing (P) to 20. cm depth. A chisel coulter drill was used in the H and D treatments and a traditional seed drill in the P treatment. Undisturbed soil cores were collected in November 2008 at soil field moisture capacity from the 4-8 and 12-16. cm depths.We estimated the critical aeration limit from either 10% air-filled porosity (εa) or relative gas diffusivity (D/D0) of 0.005 or 0.02 and found a difference between the two methods. The critical limit of soil aeration was best assessed by measuring gas diffusivity directly. Root growth was limited by a high penetration resistance in the D and H soils (below tillage depth). Poor soil aeration did not appear to be a significant limiting factor for root growth for this sandy loam soil, irrespective of tillage treatment. The soil had a high macroporosity and D/D0 exceeded 0.02 at field capacity. Fodder radish resulted in more macropores, higher gas diffusivity and lower pore tortuosity compared to dyer's woad. This was especially important for the H treatment where compaction was a significant problem at the lower depths of the arable layer (10-20cm depth). Our results suggest that fodder radish could be a promising tool in the amelioration of soil compaction. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Bobinait R.,Kaunas University of Technology | Bobinait R.,Lithuanian Research Center for Agriculture and Forestry | Viskelis P.,Kaunas University of Technology | Viskelis P.,Lithuanian Research Center for Agriculture and Forestry | Venskutonis P.R.,Kaunas University of Technology
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

The aim of this study was to assess the level of some phytochemicals in 19 raspberry cultivars grown in Lithuania. The content of total ellagic acid measured after 20 h acidic hydrolysis of investigated raspberry cultivars, varied from 119.8 (cv. 'Pokusa') to 323.5 mg/100 g (cv. 'Bristol'). The content of total phenolics ranged from 278.6 (cv. 'Pokusa') to 714.7 mg/100 g (cv. 'Bristol'). The total anthocyanins content varied from 2.1 (yellow cv. 'Beglianka') to 325.5 mg/100 g (black cv. 'Bristol'). The radical scavenging capacity of the tested raspberry cultivars highly correlating with their total phenolics and total ellagic acid content (r = 0.90 and 0.92, respectively). The results of this study expand the knowledge about variation in the content of valuable bioactive compounds in raspberries and may help for the selection and validation of the most productive cultivars. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Olle M.,Jogeva Plant Breeding Institute | Virsile A.,Lithuanian Research Center for Agriculture and Forestry
Agricultural and Food Science | Year: 2013

The aim of this study is to present the light emitting diode (LED) technology for greenhouse plant lighting and to give an overview about LED light effects on photosynthetic indices, growth, yield and nutritional value in green vegetables and tomato, cucumber, sweet pepper transplants. The sole LED lighting, applied in closed growth chambers, as well as combinations of LED wavelengths with conventional light sources, fluorescent and high pressure sodium lamp light, and natural illumination in greenhouses are overviewed. Red and blue light are basal in the lighting spectra for green vegetables and tomato, cucumber, and pepper transplants; far red light, important for photomorphogenetic processes in plants also results in growth promotion. However, theoretically unprofitable spectral parts as green or yellow also have significant physiological effects on investigated plants. Presented results disclose the variability of light spectral effects on different plant species and different physiological indices.

Jarasiunas G.,Lithuanian Research Center for Agriculture and Forestry
Journal of Central European Agriculture | Year: 2016

The aim of this research was to evaluate and describe agricultural land handicapped by steep slope and to assess agricultural experts’ attitude towards impact of terrain factor on the generic farming activity. This paper analyses differences and similarities between Lithuanian rural elderships affected by steep slope constraint (i.e. ≥ 7° (15%) slope gradient) with the subsequent evaluation in selected agronomical variables. In total 514 rural elderships were classified into five groups by percentage of agricultural land with steep slope. The assessment of agricultural variables by steep slope groups revealed that the best developed are elderships (60.12%) falling into Group I, where mean value of area under steep slope was 0.32%. Very unfavourable conditions, especially for intensive farming, were identified in Group V (7.59% elderships), where the topographical character has a dominantly hilly terrain. Agricultural experts’ (scientists) for survey was used assessing the respondents attitude (6-point Likert Scale) towards terrain impact on the items related to generic farming sector, i.e., “Agricultural development”, “Farming systems use”, “Land utilization possibilities” and “Soil erosion”. The surveyed experts considered that terrain is a factor influencing land-use decisions and the item “Land utilization possibilities” has assumed the highest mean score (3.77). Therefore it should be a good overview of agricultural land with steep slope, as one of the most important natural agri-environmental constraint affecting generic farming possibilities in Lithuania. © 2016, University of Zagreb - Faculty of Agriculture. All rights reserved.

Paplauskiene V.,Lithuanian Research Center for Agriculture and Forestry | Dabkeviciene G.,Lithuanian Research Center for Agriculture and Forestry
Zemdirbyste | Year: 2012

The nutritive value of alsike clover (Trifolium hybridum L.) is slightly lower than that of red and white clovers; however, it exhibits some advantages - persists longer in a sward, performs well on acid and wet soils, suits for forage and silage production, can be used as green manure, and is a melliferous plant. With declining liming volumes, the soils are rapidly acidifying, which may result in an increasing alsike clover production area. To reveal plant diversity, the methods currently employed encompass not only research into agro-biological traits but also biochemical-molecular assays. The inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) technique is one of the DNA assay methods widely used in genetic diversity studies, genetic evolution and systematic specification, and gene mapping. The current study was aimed to assess individual plants of T. hybridum varieties ('Daubiai', 'Lomiai', 'Poliai', 'Skriveru') for morphological traits, quality parameters and genetic diversity and to establish the correlations between the ISSR markers and characteristics of agro-biological traits. Morphological diversity was estimated according to 10 traits. The coefficient of variation varied within a wide range (CV 0.6-71.9%). The parameters of feeding value were found to be most stable (CV 0.6-16.6%), while seed yield was the most variable indicator (CV 38.7-71.9%). According to the values of agro-biological traits, the individual plants conditionally split into 4 sub-clusters, encompassing different varieties. Five primers were used to reveal the DNA diversity of alsike clover. A total of 37 fragments were amplified, of which 62.2% were polymorphic. Genetically most distant were individuals of 'Lomiai' and 'Daubiai' cultivars. The dendrograms produced according to the values of agro-biological and genetic distances were not identical. The ISSR markers were found to correlate with the following alsike clover traits: seed yield, stem number and height, crude protein and water soluble carbohydrate contents.

Little information exists on the pattern of nitrogen (N) uptake, remobilization and N use efficacy in spring triticale. The study was aimed to determine the effect of N rates and application regimes on the yield, yield components, as well as to ascertain optimal N fertilization regime for spring triticale. The study was based on the experiment carried out at the Institute of Agriculture, Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry in Central Lithuania on an Endocalcari-Endohypogleyic Cambisol (CMg-n-w-can) during the period 2008-2011. The data were analysed using ANOVA method. Nitrogen was applied as basic fertilization (N60-180) shortly before sowing, and N90, N150 rates were split in two or three applications. Grain yield, yield components (ears m-2, grains ear-1, productivity g ear-1, and thousand grain weight), grain protein content and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) were investigated. The analysis of variance of the data averaged over the four experimental years showed that experimental year significantly (P ≤ 0.01, P ≤ 0.05) influenced all the tested parameters on both basic fertilization backgrounds and N splitting treatments. The influence of N rate on the investigated parameters was significant (P ≤ 0.01, P ≤ 0.05) on basic fertilization backgrounds almost in all the cases; however, the influence of N splitting regime on the yield and yield components was insignificant. N splitting significantly (P ≤ 0.01) influenced protein content and all indices of NUE. Fertilization increased the grain yield by 35.7%, compared with the unfertilized control treatment. The N90-120 rate was found to be economically and ecologically optimal for spring triticale. It resulted in the highest (4.81-4.92 Mg ha-1) grain yield.

Jankauskiene Z.,Lithuanian Research Center for Agriculture and Forestry | Gruzdeviene E.,Lithuanian Research Center for Agriculture and Forestry
Zemdirbyste | Year: 2013

Even small additions of hemp fibres to fabrics result in significantly higher surface resistance and increased heat sorption. The two major retting methods (dew retting and water retting) are used to extract fibbers for industrial uses. Both methods produce fibres of different quality. The results of research, carried out at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Upytė Experimental Station in 2006-2007, showed that dew retted and water retted hemp fibres differed in appearance. Hemp variety as a factor showed higher impact on physical fibre parameters: fibre content in dew retted and water retted hemp straw, dew retted hemp straw output from hemp stalks, the strength of fibre obtained from dew retted and water retted hemp. Seed rate as a factor did not show any significant influence on physical fibre parameters, and only some trends of higher parameters at higher seed rates could be observed. Statistical evaluation indicated that the year as a factor affected the majority of physical parameters tested. Statistical data processing also showed that the fibre extraction method as a factor had a significant influence on the fibre content in hemp straw in 2006, on the straw output from hemp stalks in 2007, on the fibre content in hemp stalks and hemp fibre flexibility in both years of investigation, on the hemp fibre strength in 2006.

The present study was aimed to examine the impact of nitrogen and sulphur fertilisation on spring oilseed rape cv. 'Maskot' quality parameters. The experiments were carried out at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture in Dotnuva during 2003-2005 on a sod gleyic, Endocalcari-Epihypogleyic Cambisol (CMgp-w-can), light loam with moderate mineral nitrogen and low mobile sulphur contents. An increase in nitrogen application had a positive effect on the concentration of nitrogen in the aboveground biomass during the growing season (at the stages of stem elongation and pod development), and at complete maturity - in seeds and straw. In turn, sulphur fertilisation significantly increased sulphur concentration at the above-mentioned stages; however, at complete maturity it had an obvious positive effect on total sulphur concentration in seeds and straw in 2003, only. Despite high sulphur rates used (to 40 kg ha-1), the N:S ratio (an indicator of sulphur deficiency) revealed the shortage of sulphur in seeds in 2004 and 2005. The highest crude protein content was observed in a warmer and drier year 2003. The 150 kg ha-1 nitrogen rate was optimal for crude protein content in rape seeds, while in 2005 it was 90 kg ha-1. Crude fat content in seeds (2004 and 2005) decreased with increasing nitrogen application up to 150 kg ha-1 and was not influenced by different growing conditions during the experimental years. The application of nitrogen up to 150 kg ha-1 and sulphur up to 40 kg ha-1 tended to increase glucosinolate content. The highest glucosinolate content was obtained in 2005, more favourable for glucosinolate accumulation. Besides, glucosinolate content was positively influenced by N × S interaction in some cases.

Samuoliene G.,Lithuanian Research Center for Agriculture and Forestry | Sirtautas R.,Lithuanian Research Center for Agriculture and Forestry | Brazaityte A.,Lithuanian Research Center for Agriculture and Forestry | Duchovskis P.,Lithuanian Research Center for Agriculture and Forestry
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

We report on the application of supplementary light-emitting diode (LED) lighting within a greenhouse for cultivation of red, green and light green leaf baby lettuces (Lactuca sativa L.) grown under natural illumination and high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps (16-h; PPFD-170 μmol m -2 s -1) during different growing season. Supplementary lighting from blue 455/470 nm and green 505/530 nm LEDs was applied (16-h; PPFD-30 μmol m -2 s -1). Our results showed that to achieve solely a positive effect is complicated, because metabolism of antioxidant properties in lettuce depended on multicomponent exposure of variety, light quality or seasonality. The general trend of a greater positive effect of supplemental LED components on the vitamin C and tocopherol contents was in order: 535 > 505 > 455 > 470 nm; on the total phenol content: 505 > 535 = 470 > 455 nm; on the DPPH free-radical scavenging capacity: 535 = 470 > 505 > 455 nm; on the total anthocyanins: 505 > 455 > 470 > 535 nm. Further investigations are needed for understanding the mechanism and interaction between antioxidants and light signal transduction pathways. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ramanauskiene J.,Lithuanian Research Center for Agriculture and Forestry
Communications in agricultural and applied biological sciences | Year: 2012

Research evidence suggests that in Lithuania eyespot incidence in winter wheat crops was from 33 to 60% annually. Climatic conditions are the most important factor influencing the infection of winter wheat by eyespot. The variation of the climatic conditions (rainfall and number of rainy days) in the autumn and spring, the incidence and disease severity index (DSI%) of eyespot in winter wheat were mathematically described by a linear regression. The amount of rainfall during the autumn and spring periods until winter wheat second node stage (15 May) and eyespot incidence at soft dough stage showed a strong statistically significant liner correlation R = 0.789 (P < or = 0.01). During the summer period the amount of rainfall showed a moderate statistically significant liner correlation with disease severity index (DSI%) R = 0.550 (P < or = 0.05). To ascertain the necessity of fungicide use for eyespot control in winter wheat crops under Lithuanian conditions, field experiments were conducted over the 2008-2011 period. A significant reduction in the disease incidence and severity resulting from fungicide application was established only in 2010, when eyespot infection level was the highest. This was determined by one third higher precipitation in the autumn and spring of that year and significantly higher number of rainy days compared with other years.

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