Lithuanian Geological Survey

Lithuanian, Lithuania

Lithuanian Geological Survey

Lithuanian, Lithuania
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Hojberg A.L.,Geological Survey of Denmark | Hansen A.L.,Geological Survey of Denmark | Wachniew P.,AGH University of Science and Technology | Zurek A.J.,AGH University of Science and Technology | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies | Year: 2017

Study region Six countries within the Baltic Sea Basin: Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Lithuania, Poland and Germany Study focus During transport from the field to the sea nitrogen undergoes natural reduction, but with large spatial variations. Mapping this variation would allow more optimal regulation strategies, by imposing most restrictions in areas with low natural reduction. In the present study, a map for spatially variable nitrate reduction in groundwater is developed covering six countries in the Baltic Sea Basin. In contrary to previous studies within the Baltic Sea Basin, the present study provides an independent estimate of the nitrogen reduction in groundwater, based on review of national data and studies. Depending on availability, different approaches were used for the countries ranging from national modelling to expert judgement. Through a joint workshop the assessments were, to the extent possible, harmonised. New hydrological insights for the region The review revealed large variations in the hydro-geochemical conditions important for transport and degradation of nitrogen in groundwater. This includes the hydrogeology, the reducing conditions of the subsurface, and the fraction of water transported by drainage systems bypassing the reducing subsurface environments. Significant variations in groundwater reduction between the countries and within most of the countries were thus found, indicating that strategies for nitrogen regulation and mitigation measures may be optimised, if variation in the natural reduction of nitrate is considered. © 2017 The Authors

Molodkov A.,Tallinn University of Technology | Bitinas A.,Vilnius University | Damusyte A.,Lithuanian Geological Survey
Quaternary Geochronology | Year: 2010

Glacial till and inter-till deposits exposed in the Lithuanian coastal region are evidence for multiple glacial advances during the Pleistocene. Stratigraphically, tills are the most important, prominent and well preserved deposits. However, despite the importance of these deposits, there is limited chronological control and it is widely debated whether they belong to one or another Pleistocene glaciation. The aim of the present study was to find features of the glacigenic tills, which allow us to temporally constrain these deposits, which are usually deemed to be undateable by luminescence methods. To achieve the goal, 15 samples from five different till beds and 12 samples from underlying sandy inter-till deposits from the same area were taken for analysis by feldspar-based IR-OSL technique. This paper presents the results, which suggest that the studied deposits, including glacial tills, are mostly of late Pleistocene age (MIS 5 and 4). We discuss analytical data obtained for these materials and implications for stratigraphic subdivision of the till-bearing deposits in the Lithuanian Maritime Region. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Buynevich I.V.,Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution | DamuSyte A.,Lithuanian Geological Survey | Bitinas A.,Klaipeda University | Olenin S.,Klaipeda University | And 2 more authors.
Special Paper of the Geological Society of America | Year: 2011

Present address: Department of Earth and Environmental Science, Temple University, 1901 N. 13th Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122, USA; coast@ An accurate chronology for the exchange of aquatic species between water basins is important for paleoenvironmental reconstruction on both regional and continental scales. During the early Holocene, the range of zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, was limited to the Black, Azov, Caspian, and Aral Seas, as well as the estuaries and lower and middle reaches of the Pontic-Caspian rivers. We present new fi ndings that challenge the currently held view that this species migrated into the Baltic Sea watershed during the early 1800s through the canals joining the tributaries of rivers that drain into the Black and Baltic Sea basins. Geological investigations along the southeast Baltic Sea coast (Curonian and Vistula spits and lagoons) have uncovered shells of D. polymorpha that yielded radiocarbon ages older than 1000 radiocarbon yr B.P. We propose two scenarios to explain the new radiocarbon dates for D. polymorpha. The fi rst scenario involves an anomalously large reservoir effect-as large as 600- 800 yr-however, several lines of evidence cast doubt upon the validity of such a large reservoir correction. The second scenario that might explain the old zebra mussel ages is the earlier arrival of Dreissena polymorpha into the Baltic region. Natural exchange may have been facilitated by the proximity of the tributaries draining the Pontic and Baltic watersheds. Human-mediated transport is also considered in association with Viking voyages from the Baltic to the Black and Caspian Seas between A.D. 800 and 1000, and the riverine trade exchange during the Lithuanian expansion into the Pontic steppe in subsequent centuries. It is likely that both scenarios played a role, with implications for late Holocene biogeography and paleoecology of the Pontic-Caspian and Baltic basins. © 2011 Geological Society of America.

Schmidt-Thome P.,Geological Survey of Finland | Klein J.,Geological Survey of Finland | Satkunas J.,Lithuanian Geological Survey
Episodes | Year: 2010

Geoscientists play an increasingly important role in understanding climate change and its impacts. This is especially the case with adaptation to climate change which cannot be solved in isolated attempts, but calls for international cooperation and integrated approaches. The potential effects of climate change on natural hazards, as well as water and energy resources, are of great concern to geoscientists and stakeholders. Climate change has only recently been incorporated into decision-making processes and spatial planning. In order to facilitate communication of potential impacts of climate change, and to determine strategies and measures to adapt to those, in October 2009 the IUGS Commission on Geoscience for Environmental Management (GEM) established a Working Group on Climate Change Adaptation ( This article presents some results of projects on climate change adaptation in the Baltic Sea Region (conducted by multi-disciplinary project teams under the lead of the Geological Survey of Finland). This paper was elaborated under the auspices of the BaltCICA project and IUGS-GEM.

Buynevich I.V.,Temple University | Bitinas A.,Klaipda University | Bitinas A.,Vilnius University | Damuyt A.,Lithuanian Geological Survey | Pupienis D.,Vilnius University
Eos | Year: 2010

Throughout Earth's history, tectonic forces, often violent and unpredictable, have been responsible for exposing geological formations to scientific scrutiny. But forces of uplift are not restricted to plate boundaries. For example, when looking at forested coastal dunes bordering placid Curonian Lagoon along the Lithuanian coast of the Baltic Sea, one hardly suspects that any powerful forces are at work. Yet this is a site where massive migrating hills of sand have put pressure on the deep strata of the ancient lagoon, forcing its sediments to the surface and offering rare access to fossils of the Holocene, which spans the past 10,000 years.

Bitinas A.,Klaipeda University | Katinas V.,Institute of Geology and Geography | Gibbard P.L.,University of Cambridge | Saarmann S.,Vilnius University | And 4 more authors.
Quaternary International | Year: 2015

A sequence of lacustrine and alluvial sediments represented by stratified sand, silt and, rarely, clay over 20 m-thick is widespread in the Anykščiai and Vilnius districts in Eastern and South-eastern Lithuania, respectively. These sediments are exposed only in Eastern Lithuania, in the Šventoji River valley and its tributaries. Here they overlie Devonian bedrock and are overlain by the Pleistocene glacial deposits. The results of different geological investigations (palaeobotanical, mineralogical, geochemical, etc.) indicate that these sediments probably formed in the basins and rivers that date from the Neogene to the Early Pleistocene. Stratigraphical subdivision and correlation of sediments from the transition zone between the Neogene and Quaternary are problematic for several reasons. This article presents new results of palaeomagnetic investigations of these sediments from five outcrops, accompanied by lithological studies. The sediments were laid down during a relatively long and variable period of palaeomagnetic reversals comparable to the Matuyama and Gauss polarity chrons. The boundary between the Brunhes and Matuyama polarity chrons has been traced in the upper part of the sections. The stratigraphical subdivision and correlation of the entire sequence, as well as the identification of the Neogene/Quaternary boundary in these sediments, remain undetermined. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

Cyziene J.,Lithuanian Geological Survey | Graniczny M.,Polish Geological Institute | Kowalski Z.,Polish Geological Institute | Piotrowski A.,Polish Geological Institute | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management | Year: 2010

Ground surface deformations can be related to natural and anthropogenic activities. The availability of ground movement data from regular satellite observations, combined with the knowledge of local geology and geomorphology, can help to improve our understanding of subsidence and soil geotechnical settlement phenomena, as well as to distinguish them from structural deterioration of buildings, which in urban environments represent the most common type of radar targets (PS). In Lithuania ground surface deformations are usually related to landslides, karstic, suffusion processes and anthropogenic activities (particularly in urban areas), which can trigger destruction of buildings, communication lifelines and soil consolidation. This paper is intended to illustrate considerable interpretative difficulties concerning the Persistent Scatterers Interferometry (PSI) results from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data acquired over the Vilnius area (Lithuania) in the framework of TERRAFIRMA project. Protection of groundwater from pollution in the face of both man's intervention and geologically-driven movements is a high priority for the City Authorities. The distribution of numerous PS shows evidence of the spatial variability of the ground conditions throughout the old town and adjacent area of Vilnius. PS detected in the centre of Vilnius are characterized by velocities mainly ranging between -1.5 to +1.5 mm/year during about 8.5 years of observation. These figures are within the measurement precision error and imply a general stability of the city centre. Nevertheless, the review of the PS dataset has enabled to identify several sites within the Vilnius area characterized by spatially consistent concentrations of the downward moving PS. The localities as well as the site of the PS reference point were checked during the field reconnaissance and the implications of PS results are discussed in this paper.

Satkunas J.,Lithuanian Geological Survey | Satkunas J.,Vilnius University | Grigiene A.,Lithuanian Geological Survey | Buynevich I.V.,Temple University | Taminskas J.,Institute of Geology and Geography
Boreas | Year: 2013

The Middle Weichselian (OIS 4-3) and the transition from Early to Middle Weichselian are the most problematic and disputed time intervals of the Late Pleistocene with regard to the palaeogeography of the Fennoscandian glaciations. The number of sites with sediments of Middle Weichselian age in the Baltic region is very limited. An extensive area (77km2) of lacustrine sediments (sand, clay, silt with humus and interlayers of peat), under the relief-forming Upper Weichselian till, was discovered in the vicinity of the Venta settlement, northwestern Lithuania, and named the Venta Palaeolacustrine Basin. The Svirkanciai outcrop (56°18′05″N, 22°53′00″E) (15m in height) of this palaeobasin is composed of two sediment complexes of different genesis and age. The lower part consists of silt and very fine-grained sand of lacustrine origin. According to palynological data, the lacustrine sediments accumulated under boreo-arctic climatic conditions. The pollen records suggest that local vegetation was sparse forest with open areas. An Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) date of the lacustrine sand yielded an age of >79±6ka, which indicates that lacustrine conditions may have occurred during part of the Early Weichselian Odderade Interstadial (Jonionys 2). However, the palynological data from Svirkanciai suggest a Middle Weichselian age, possibly correlating with the Oerel Interstadial (Jonionys 3) 55ka ago. No traces of early Middle Weichselian Schalkholz (Nemunas 2a) stadial glacial advance have been found in the Venta sections. This also suggests a Middle Weichselian age for the Svirkanciai lacustrine sediments. © 2012 The Authors. Boreas © 2012 The Boreas Collegium.

Dobrotin N.,Klaipeda University | Bitinas A.,Klaipeda University | Michelevicius D.,Vilnius University | Damusyte A.,Lithuanian Geological Survey | Mazeika J.,Institute of Geology and Geography
Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland | Year: 2013

One of the unique places in Europe in both environmental and cultural terms is the Curonian Spit - a massive sandy barrier separating the Curonian Lagoon from the Baltic Sea. Straddling both the Lithuanian and the Russian parts, the spit is included into the UNESCO list of cultural heritage monuments. From the geological point of view, it is still an "alive" environment dominated by aeolian deposits. With the help of modern geophysical and geochronological techniques (ground-penetrating radar [GPR] surveys, LIDAR data, and radiocarbon [14C] dating), detailed investigations of paleosols were carried out in the Dead (Grey) Dunes massif located between Juodkrante and Pervalka settlements on the Lithuanian half of the Curonian Spit. Several soil-forming generations (phases) during 5800-4500, 3900-3100, 2600-2400, and from 1900 calendar years BP until the present have been distinguished. GPR surveys enabled a series of paleogeographic reconstructions of the massif for different time intervals of its evolutionary history.

Arustiene J.,Lithuanian Geological Survey | Kriukaite J.,Lithuanian Geological Survey
NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security | Year: 2012

In Lithuania the transboundary groundwater flows have been identified in border area with Belarus, Latvia, Poland and Kaliningrad oblast (Russia). There is a different level of aquifer identification. Although the research do not indicate the influence of groundwater abstraction on the qualitative and quantitative parameters. The paper describe the major projects carried out in the areas of transboundary aquifers base on the cross-border activities conducted in accordance with the requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive. The need of obtaining representative information on the qualitative and quantitative status of drinking groundwater resources was identified. This information should become a background for scientific works for sustainable management of groundwater resources shared with neighboring countries. © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012.

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