Lithuanian Academy of Sciences

Vilnius, Lithuania

Lithuanian Academy of Sciences

Vilnius, Lithuania

The Lithuanian Academy of science or LAS, founded in 1941 as the Lithuanian SSR Academy of science , as an autonomous, state-subsidized establishment serving as a scientific advisory body to the government of Lithuanian SSR. Following the 1991 passage of the Law on Research and Higher Education of the Republic of Lithuania, it was reorganized. Its first president was Vincas Krėvė-Mickevičius, followed by Mykolas Biržiška, Vladas Jurgutis, Juozas Matulis, Juras Požela, Benediktas Juodka, and Zenonas Rokus Rudzikas. The Academy represents the Republic of Lithuania in the following international organizations: ALLEA , ICSU , EASAC , and IAP . In addition to founding several scientific institutions and foundations, it issues publications and textbooks, sponsors symposia and conferences. It has established 15 memorial prizes and awards, encourages young scientists and students to engage in research by annually awarding 10 prizes to young scientists and 15 prizes to students. Since 2008 together with the Bank of Lithuania grants Vladas Jurgutis Award.The Academy's headquarters are located in Vilnius. Wikipedia.

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Uab Rekin International and Lithuanian Academy of Sciences | Date: 2014-05-30

Provided are chrome-free adhesion pretreatment processes for use on a variety of reinforced or unreinforced plastics and polymers, such as polyimides, polyetherimides and polyvinylchloride. The pretreatment process can be performed in a combination of two sequential operations, which includes treating with a first solution containing nitric acid and subsequently treating with a second solution that includes sulfuric acid and periodate ions. Alternatively, the pretreatment process can be performed by treatment with a single combined composition that includes nitric acid, sulfuric acid, and periodate ions. The pretreatment processes, either done in two separate solutions, sequentially, or in one combined solution, produce an adherent surface for further metallization of the article, with adhesional values of the metal layer higher than those achieved using conventional chromic acid pretreatment processes.

Cicenas J.,University of Fribourg | Valius M.,Lithuanian Academy of Sciences
Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology | Year: 2011

Chemical compounds that interfere with an enzymatic function of kinases are useful for gaining insight into the complicated biochemical processes in mammalian cells. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) play an essential role in the control of the cell cycle and/or proliferation. These kinases as well as their regulators are frequently deregulated in different human tumors. Aberrations in CDK activity have also been observed in viral infections, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's diseases, ischemia and some proliferative disorders. This led to an intensive search for small-molecule CDK inhibitors not only for research purposes, but also for therapeutic applications. Here, we discuss seventeen CDK inhibitors and their use in cancer research or therapy. This review should help researchers to decide which inhibitor is best suited for the specific purpose of their research. For this purpose, the targets, commercial availability and IC50 values are provided for each inhibitor. The review will also provide an overview of the clinical studies performed with some of these inhibitors. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Misiunas T.,Lithuanian Academy of Sciences | Tornau E.E.,Lithuanian Academy of Sciences
Journal of Physical Chemistry B | Year: 2012

The model for ordering of triangular-shaped molecules with strongly interacting vertices is proposed and solved by the Monte Carlo method. The model accounts for three main intermolecular interactions and three states (two main orientations and a vacancy state) of a molecule on triangular lattice, the situation which is encountered in self-assembly of TMA molecules characterized by strongly directional H-bonding. Distinguishing the main "tip-to- tip" interaction, we calculate the phase diagrams for the honeycomb and frustrated honeycomb structures and demonstrate how these structures shrink and vanish with gradual increase of two other ("side-to-side" and "tip-to-side") interactions. We study the effect of frustration on the phase diagram, since the frustrated phase is obtained at the Ising limit of the model. We also demonstrate how the inclusion of longer-range interactions leads to substitution of the frustrated phase by the zigzag structure. Finally, we obtain the phase diagram with two experimentally found TMA structures (honeycomb and zigzag) and discuss the conditions of their existence by comparison with the experimental results. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Valiokas R.,Lithuanian Academy of Sciences
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences | Year: 2012

The actual progress towards biological chip devices consisting of nanostructured functional entities is summarized. The practical aspects of molecular nanobiochips are discussed, including the main surface chemistry platforms, as well as conventional and unconventional fabrication tools. Several successful biological demonstrations of the first generation of nanobiochip devices (mainly, different nanoarrays) are highlighted with the aim of revealing the potential of this technology in life sciences, medicine, and related areas. © 2011 Springer Basel AG.

Zubovas K.,Lithuanian Academy of Sciences | King A.R.,University of Leicester
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2014

Several active galaxies show strong evidence for fast (vout ~ 1000 km s-1) massive (M= several × 1000 M⊙yr-1) gas outflows. Such outflows are expected on theoretical grounds once the central supermassive black hole reaches the mass set by the M-σ relation, and may be what makes galaxies become red and dead. Despite their high velocities, which imply temperatures far above those necessary for molecule dissociation, the outflows contain large amounts of molecular gas. To understand this surprising result, we investigate the gas cooling and show that the outflows cannot stably persist in high-temperature states. Instead, the outflowing gas forms a two-phase medium, with cold dense molecular clumps mixed with hot tenuous gas, as observed. We also show that efficient cooling leads to star formation, providing an observable outflow signature. The central parts of the outflows can be intrinsically luminous gamma-ray sources, provided that the central black hole is still strongly accreting. We note also that these outflows can persist for ~108 yr after the central AGN has turned off, so that many observed outflows (particularly with high speeds) otherwise assumed to be driven by starbursts might also be of this type. © 2014 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Zubovas K.,Lithuanian Academy of Sciences | Nayakshin S.,University of Leicester
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2014

It is usually assumed that outflows from luminous active galactic nuclei (AGN) are either in the energy-conserving (non-radiative) or in the momentum-conserving (radiative) regime. We show that in a non-spherical geometry the effects of both regimes may manifest at the same time, and that it is the momentum of the outflow that sets the MBH-σ relation. Considering an initially elliptical distribution of gas in the host galaxy, we show that a non-radiative outflow opens up a wide 'escape route' over the paths of least resistance. Most of the outflow energy escapes in that direction. At the same time, in the directions of higher resistance, the ambient gas is affected mainly by the incident momentum from the outflow. Quenching SMBH growth requires quenching gas delivery along the paths of highest resistance, and therefore, it is the momentum of the outflow that limits the black hole growth. We present an analytical argument showing that such energy-conserving feedback bubbles driving leaky ambient shells will terminate SMBH growth once its mass reaches roughly the Mσ mass derived earlier by King for momentum-conserving AGN outflows. Our simulations also have potentially important implications for observations of AGN jet feedback and starburst galaxy feedback. The collimation of the wide angle AGN outflow away from the symmetry plane, as found in our simulations, indicates that credit for work done by such outflows may sometimes be mistakenly given to AGN jets or star formation feedback since wide angle ν ~ 0.1c outflows are harder to observe and the phase when they are present may be short. © 2014 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Mockus J.,Lithuanian Academy of Sciences
Journal of Global Optimization | Year: 2015

The traditional numerical analysis considers optimization algorithms which guarantee some accuracy for all functions to be optimized. This includes the exact algorithms. Limiting the maximal error requires a computational effort that in many cases increases exponentially with the size of the problem (Horst and Pardalos, 1995, Handbook of Global Optimization, Kluwer). That limits practical applications of the worst case analysis. An alternative is the average case analysis where the average error is made as small as possible (Calvin and Glynn, 1997, J. Appl. Prob., 32: 157). The average is taken over a set of functions to be optimized. The average case analysis is called the Bayesian Approach (BA) (Diaconis, 1988, Statistical Decision Theory and Related Topics, Springer; Mockus and Mockus, 1987, Theory of Optimal Decisions, Nauk, Lithuania). Application of BA to optimization of heuristics is called the Bayesian Heuristic Approach (BHA) (Mockus, 2000, A Set of Examples of Global and Discrete Optimization, Kluwer). In this paper a short presentation of the basic ideas of BHA (described in detail in Mockus (1989), Bayesian Approach to Global Optimization, Kluwer and Mockus (2000), A Set of Examples of Global and Discrete Optimization, Kluwer) is given using the knapsack problem as an example. The application potential is illustrated by the school scheduling example. In addition the new heuristic algorithm for solving a bimatrix game problem is investigated. The results ae applied while solving real life optimization problems and also as examples for distance graduate level studies of the theory of games and markets in the Internet environment. © 2002Kluwer Academic Publishers.Printed in the Netherlands.

Raudys S.,Vilnius University | Raudys A.,Lithuanian Academy of Sciences
IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence | Year: 2010

A novel loss function to train a net of K single-layer perceptrons (KSLPs) is suggested, where pairwise misclassification cost matrix can be incorporated directly. The complexity of the network remains the same; a gradient's computation of the loss function does not necessitate additional calculations. Minimization of the loss requires a smaller number of training epochs. Efficacy of cost-sensitive methods depends on the cost matrix, the overlap of the pattern classes, and sample sizes. Experiments with real-world pattern recognition (PR) tasks show that employment of novel loss function usually outperforms three benchmark methods. © 2010 IEEE.

Zilinskas A.,Lithuanian Academy of Sciences
Journal of Global Optimization | Year: 2010

Construction of global optimization algorithms using statistical models and radial basis function models is discussed. A new method of data smoothing using radial basis function and least squares approach is presented. It is shown that the P-algorithm for global optimization in the presence of noise based on a statistical model coincides with the corresponding radial basis algorithm. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Dargys A.,Lithuanian Academy of Sciences
Physica E: Low-Dimensional Systems and Nanostructures | Year: 2013

The quantum ring with spin-orbit interaction included is analyzed in a nonstandard way using Clifford or geometric algebra (GA). The solution of the Schriidinger-Pauli equation is presented in terms of rotors having clear classical mechanics interpretation, i.e., in GA the rotors act in 3D Euclidean space rather than as operators in an abstract Hilbert space. This classical-like property of spin control in GA provides a more transparent approach in designing and understanding spintronic devices. The aim of the paper is to attract readers attention to new possibilities in spin physics and to demonstrate how the quantum ring problem can be solved by GA methods. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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