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Farmanesh S.,University of Houston | Ramamoorthy S.,Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute | Chung J.,University of Houston | Asplin J.R.,Litholink Corporation | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2014

The molecular recognition and interactions governing site-specific adsorption of growth inhibitors on crystal surfaces can be tailored in order to control the anisotropic growth rates and physical properties of crystalline materials. Here we examine this phenomenon in calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystallization, a model system of calcification with specific relevance for pathological mineralization. We analyzed the effect of three putative growth inhibitors - chondroitin sulfate, serum albumin, and transferrin - using analytical techniques capable of resolving inhibitor-crystal interactions from interfacial to bulk scales. We observed that each inhibitor alters surface growth by adsorbing on to distinct steps emanating from screw dislocations on COM surfaces. Binding of inhibitors to different crystallographic faces produced morphological modifications that are consistent with classical mechanisms of layer-by-layer crystal growth inhibition. The site-specific adsorption of inhibitors on COM surfaces was confirmed by bulk crystallization, fluorescent confocal microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Kinetic studies of COM growth at varying inhibitor concentrations revealed marked differences in their efficacy and potency. Systematic analysis of inhibitor combinations, quantified via the combination index, identified various binary pairings capable of producing synergistic, additive, and antagonistic effects. Collectively, our investigation of physiologically relevant biomolecules suggests potential roles of COM inhibitors in pathological crystallization and provides guiding principles for biomimetic design of molecular modifiers for applications in crystal engineering. © 2013 American Chemical Society. Source

Bergsland K.J.,University of Chicago | Coe F.L.,University of Chicago | White M.D.,Urological Institute of Northeastern New York | Erhard M.J.,Nemours Childrens Clinic | And 4 more authors.
Kidney International | Year: 2012

Calcium nephrolithiasis in children is increasing in prevalence and tends to be recurrent. Although children have a lower incidence of nephrolithiasis than adults, its etiology in children is less well understood; hence, treatments targeted for adults may not be optimal in children. To better understand metabolic abnormalities in stone-forming children, we compared chemical measurements and the crystallization properties of 24-h urine collections from 129 stone formers matched to 105 non-stone-forming siblings and 183 normal, healthy children with no family history of stones, all aged 6 to 17 years. The principal risk factor for calcium stone formation was hypercalciuria. Stone formers have strikingly higher calcium excretion along with high supersaturation for calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate, and a reduced distance between the upper limit of metastability and supersaturation for calcium phosphate, indicating increased risk of calcium phosphate crystallization. Other differences in urine chemistry that exist between adult stone formers and normal individuals such as hyperoxaluria, hypocitraturia, abnormal urine pH, and low urine volume were not found in these children. Hence, hypercalciuria and a reduction in the gap between calcium phosphate upper limit of metastability and supersaturation are crucial determinants of stone risk. This highlights the importance of managing hypercalciuria in children with calcium stones. © 2012 International Society of Nephrology. Source

Frick K.K.,University of Rochester | Asplin J.R.,Litholink Corporation | Favus M.J.,University of Chicago | Culbertson C.,University of Rochester | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Renal Physiology | Year: 2013

Genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming (GHS) rats, bred to maximize urine (U) calcium (Ca) excretion, have increased intestinal Ca absorption and bone Ca resorption and reduced renal Ca reabsorption, leading to increased UCa compared with the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. GHS rats have increased vitamin D receptors (VDR) at each of these sites, with normal levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 (1,25D), indicating that their VDR is undersaturated with 1,25D. We tested the hypothesis that 1,25D would induce a greater increase in UCa in GHS rats by feeding both strains ample Ca and injecting 1,25D (25 ng · 100 g body wt-1 · day-1) or vehicle for 16 days. With 1,25D, UCa in SD increased from 1.7 ± 0.3 mg/day to 24.4 ± 1.2 (Δ = 22.4 ± 1.5) and increased more in GHS from 10.5 ± 0.7 to 41.9 ± 0.7 (Δ = 29.8 ± 1.8; P = 0.003). To determine the mechanism of the greater increase in UCa in GHS rats, we measured kidney RNA expression of components of renal Ca transport. Expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV)5 and calbindin D28K were increased similarly in SD + 1,25D and GHS + 1,25D. The Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX1) was increased in GHS + 1,25D. Klotho was decreased in SD + 1,25D and GHS + 1,25D. TRPV6 was increased in SD + 1,25D and increased further in GHS + 1,25D. Claudin 14, 16, and 19, Na/K/2Cl transporter (NKCC2), and secretory K channel (ROMK) did not differ between SD + 1,25D and GHS + 1,25D. Increased UCa with 1,25D in GHS exceeded that of SD, indicating that the increased VDR in GHS induces a greater biological response. This increase in UCa, which must come from the intestine and/or bone, must exceed any effect of 1,25D on TRPV6 or NCX1-mediated renal Ca reabsorption. © 2013 the American Physiological Society. Source

Bergsland K.J.,University of Chicago | Zisman A.L.,University of Chicago | Asplin J.R.,Litholink Corporation | Worcester E.M.,University of Chicago | Coe F.L.,University of Chicago
American Journal of Physiology - Renal Physiology | Year: 2011

Little is known about the renal handling of oxalate in patients with idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH). To explore the role of tubular oxalate handling in IH and to evaluate whether differences exist between IH and normal controls, we studied 19 IH subjects, 8 normal subjects, and 2 bariatric stone formers (BSF) during a 1-day General Clinical Research Center protocol utilizing a low-oxalate diet. Urine and blood samples were collected at 30- to 60-min intervals while subjects were fasting and after they ate three meals providing known amounts of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, protein, oxalate, and calories. Plasma oxalate concentrations and oxalate-filtered loads were similar between patients (includes IH and BSF) and controls in both the fasting and fed states. Urinary oxalate excretion was significantly higher in patients vs. controls regardless of feeding state. Fractional excretion of oxalate (FEOx) was >1, suggesting tubular secretion of oxalate, in 6 of 19 IH and both BSF, compared with none of the controls (P < 0.00001). Adjusted for water extraction along the nephron, urine oxalate rose more rapidly among patients than normal subjects with increases in plasma oxalate. Our findings identify tubular secretion of oxalate as a key mediator of hyperoxaluria in calcium stone formers, potentially as a means of maintaining plasma oxalate in a tight range. Copyright © 2011 the American Physiological Society. Source

Bushinsky D.A.,University of Rochester | Willett T.,Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute | Willett T.,University of Toronto | Asplin J.R.,Litholink Corporation | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Bone and Mineral Research | Year: 2011

We have bred a strain of rats to maximize urine (u) calcium (Ca) excretion and model hypercalciuric nephrolithiasis. These genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming (GHS) rats excrete more uCa than control Sprague-Dawley rats, uniformly form kidney stones, and similar to patients, demonstrate lower bone mineral density. Clinically, thiazide diuretics reduce uCa and prevent stone formation; however, whether they benefit bone is not clear. We used GHS rats to test the hypothesis that the thiazide diuretic chlorthalidone (CTD) would have a favorable effect on bone density and quality. Twenty GHS rats received a fixed amount of a 1.2% Ca diet, and half also were fed CTD (4 to 5mg/kg/d). Rats fed CTD had a marked reduction in uCa. The axial and appendicular skeletons were studied. An increase in trabecular mineralization was observed with CTD compared with controls. CTD also improved the architecture of trabecular bone. Using micro-computed tomography (μCT), trabecular bone volume (BV/TV), trabecular thickness, and trabecular number were increased with CTD. A significant increase in trabecular thickness with CTD was confirmed by static histomorphometry. CTD also improved the connectivity of trabecular bone. Significant improvements in vertebral strength and stiffness were measured by vertebral compression. Conversely, a slight loss of bending strength was detected in the femoral diaphysis with CTD. Thus results obtained in hypercalciuric rats suggest that CTD can favorably influence vertebral fracture risk. CTD did not alter formation parameters, suggesting that the improved vertebral bone strength was due to decreased bone resorption and retention of bone structure. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. Source

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