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Ameur F.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Quarouch H.,IAV Hassan II | Dionnet M.,Lisode | Lejars C.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Kuper M.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development
Cahiers Agricultures

Groundwater use enabled the development of intensive horticulture and arboriculture alongside more diversified farming systems in the Saïss (Morocco). Young farmers actively engage with these different farming systems. The rapid agrarian changes raise questions about the future of farming in a context of declining groundwater levels and saturated agricultural markets. The aim of this article is to contribute to the debate on the differences in intergenerational logic in changing agricultural practices. We developed a participatory approach to involve the diverse types of farmers and institutional stakeholders in a debate on the future of farming and on the role of young farmers in two agrarian reform cooperatives. Our results show that the different age groups behave very differently from one another, both in the game and in real life. The farmers of the agrarian reform have defensive strategies and refuse to "play" without being sure of access to productive resources. Their sons play both in the real world to develop entrepreneurial farming and in the virtual world to explore the possibilities for change, on diversified family farms and on large entrepreneurial farms. Although young farmers will shape tomorrow's agriculture, their projects are not currently not taken into account by policy. It is therefore important to rethink public policies to support them. Source

Daniell K.A.,Australian National University | White I.,Australian National University | Ferrand N.,IRSTEA | Ribarova I.S.,University of Architecture, Civil Engineering and Geodesy | And 8 more authors.
Ecology and Society

Broad-scale, multi-governance level, participatory water management processes intended to aid collective decision making and learning are rarely initiated, designed, implemented, and managed by one person. These processes mostly emerge from some form of collective planning and organization activities because of the stakes, time, and budgets involved in their implementation. Despite the potential importance of these collective processes for managing complex water-related social-ecological systems, little research focusing on the project teams that design and organize participatory water management processes has ever been undertaken. We have begun to fill this gap by introducing and outlining the concept of a co-engineering process and examining how it impacts the processes and outcomes of participatory water management. We used a hybrid form of intervention research in two broad-scale, multi-governance level, participatory water management processes in Australia and Bulgaria to build insights into these coengineering processes. We examined how divergent objectives and conflict in the project teams were negotiated, and the impacts of this co-engineering on the participatory water management processes. These investigations showed: (1) that language barriers may aid, rather than hinder, the process of stakeholder appropriation, collective learning and skills transferal related to the design and implementation of participatory water management processes; and (2) that diversity in co-engineering groups, if managed positively through collaborative work and integrative negotiations, can present opportunities and not just challenges for achieving a range of desired outcomes for participatory water management processes. A number of areas for future research on co-engineering participatory water management processes are also highlighted. © 2010 by the author(s). Source

Faysse N.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Faysse N.,National School of Agriculture, Meknes | Errahj M.,National School of Agriculture, Meknes | Imache A.,Lisode
Society and Natural Resources

Approaches to improve the governance of social-ecological systems are difficult to define in situations where governance is weak, that is, involving limited interactions between the actors and weak management of natural resources. This article analyzes an action research process implemented in the Chaouia coastal region of Morocco, where weak governance of the social-ecological system led to a groundwater and agricultural crisis. A dialogue between local actors was set up with the aim of identifying strategies to address the crisis. First separately and then together, farmers' groups and staff members of public organizations analyzed the existing situation, scenarios for the future of the area, and strategies to cope with the crisis. Contrary to the expectations of the participants, farmers and staff members of public organizations had productive discussions. This approach clarified how social learning can be achieved and governance improved in this situation of weak governance. © 2014 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Over the last decade, Algeria has encouraged the adoption of water saving systems by providing subsidies to fanners through a national plan for agricultural development, with particular attention paid to drip irrigation. This initiative has been successful only for a limited number of farmers. This work aims at analysing the determinants that influence the Algerian farmers in converting to the drip irrigation system. This work is based on a model (Logit) that allowed us to identify variables significantly influencing the innovation behaviour of fanners regarding the decision to adopt the system. The results show that subsidies, type of crop and educational level have positively affected adoption. However, the investment costs, conditions needed to access and lack hydraulic structure seem to have a negative affect the adoption drip irrigation. Source

Dionnet M.,Lisode | Daniell K.A.,Australian National University | Imache A.,Lisode | von Korff Y.,Lisode | And 5 more authors.
Ecology and Society

Stakeholder and public participation in natural resources management (NRM) is now widely accepted as necessary to achieve sustainable development outcomes. Yet, effective implementation of participatory processes necessitates wellcalibrated methods and tools, as well as carefully honed facilitation skills that are difficult to gain without practice. Practitioners and academics leading these processes are thus encouraged to better reflect on, prepare, and justify their interventions, before starting to work in the field with stakeholders. Our paper shows how a Simulation Community of Practice (SCoP) was set up to support improved participatory practice. The specificity of this community is that its members not only discuss planned participatory interventions, but also simulate these processes by adopting roles of future participants, and by working through the different steps of the workshop that will be later implemented in the field. The evaluation of our approach shows that individual and social learning of participants in the SCoP is developed, leading mainly to improved facilitator skills and to calibration of the participatory methods and tools being tested. A space is also provided for deepening reflection on the purposes of the participatory process and the values that guide these interventions. Our experience could provide a model for others around the world to set up their own SCoP to support participatory NRM practice. Further improvements to our SCoP and new ones could be made by enhancing the feedback mechanisms between the field sites and the community, in order to encourage more cumulative learning and to reinforce the members' interest, maintaining their involvement in the community over time. © 2013 by the author(s). Source

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