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Lamers M.,Maastricht University | Ottow B.,Deltares | Korff Y.V.,Lisode
Ecology and Society | Year: 2010

Participation of stakeholders in planning processes is increasingly seen as an essential element in adaptive and integrated water management and sometimes a policy requirement from higher-level governance bodies. Despite an extensive literature on the advantages and disadvantages of public participation and criteria for effective participation, not much is known about how water managers should proceed in a given context. Water-management agencies have to face the challenge of effectively involving stakeholders in developing their water-management plans and must design and implement a balanced process approach among the available time, finances, organization, and facilitation without compromising their authority. This article presents a participatory planning process designed and implemented at Water Board Hoogheemraadschap De Stichtse Rijnlanden (HDSR) in the center of The Netherlands. For a period of 2 yrs, these three groups were involved in various ways, participating in different types of meetings and workshops, using a range of participatory tools and techniques. The process and results of the three groups were monitored and evaluated using a tailored evaluation strategy. This paper analyzes the way the design and implementation of the process is perceived by both the conveners and participants and suggests practical lessons for water managers. Based on our case, it is argued that a careful process design, a thorough and continuous stakeholder analysis, building reflective workshops within and after the process, and ensuring experienced and qualified process leaders can greatly enhance the adaptive capacity and successful outcome of the participatory planning process. © 2010 by the author(s).

Ameur F.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Quarouch H.,IAV Hassan II | Dionnet M.,Lisode | Lejars C.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Kuper M.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development
Cahiers Agricultures | Year: 2015

Groundwater use enabled the development of intensive horticulture and arboriculture alongside more diversified farming systems in the Saïss (Morocco). Young farmers actively engage with these different farming systems. The rapid agrarian changes raise questions about the future of farming in a context of declining groundwater levels and saturated agricultural markets. The aim of this article is to contribute to the debate on the differences in intergenerational logic in changing agricultural practices. We developed a participatory approach to involve the diverse types of farmers and institutional stakeholders in a debate on the future of farming and on the role of young farmers in two agrarian reform cooperatives. Our results show that the different age groups behave very differently from one another, both in the game and in real life. The farmers of the agrarian reform have defensive strategies and refuse to "play" without being sure of access to productive resources. Their sons play both in the real world to develop entrepreneurial farming and in the virtual world to explore the possibilities for change, on diversified family farms and on large entrepreneurial farms. Although young farmers will shape tomorrow's agriculture, their projects are not currently not taken into account by policy. It is therefore important to rethink public policies to support them.

Faysse N.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Rinaudo J.-D.,Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières | Bento S.,University of Lisbon | Richard-Ferroudji A.,IRSTEA | And 9 more authors.
Regional Environmental Change | Year: 2014

There is an increasing call for local measures to adapt to climate change, based on foresight analyses in collaboration with actors. However, such analyses involve many challenges, particularly because the actors concerned may not consider climate change to be an urgent concern. This paper examines the methodological choices made by three research teams in the design and implementation of participatory foresight analyses to explore agricultural and water management options for adaptation to climate change. Case studies were conducted in coastal areas of France, Morocco, and Portugal where the groundwater is intensively used for irrigation, the aquifers are at risk or are currently overexploited, and a serious agricultural crisis is underway. When designing the participatory processes, the researchers had to address four main issues: whether to avoid or prepare dialogue between actors whose relations may be limited or tense; how to select participants and get them involved; how to facilitate discussion of issues that the actors may not initially consider to be of great concern; and finally, how to design and use scenarios. In each case, most of the invited actors responded and met to discuss and evaluate a series of scenarios. Strategies were discussed at different levels, from farming practices to aquifer management. It was shown that such participatory analyses can be implemented in situations which may initially appear to be unfavourable. This was made possible by the flexibility in the methodological choices, in particular the possibility of framing the climate change issue in a broader agenda for discussion with the actors. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Faysse N.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Faysse N.,National School of Agriculture, Meknes | Errahj M.,National School of Agriculture, Meknes | Imache A.,LISODE | And 2 more authors.
Society and Natural Resources | Year: 2014

Approaches to improve the governance of social-ecological systems are difficult to define in situations where governance is weak, that is, involving limited interactions between the actors and weak management of natural resources. This article analyzes an action research process implemented in the Chaouia coastal region of Morocco, where weak governance of the social-ecological system led to a groundwater and agricultural crisis. A dialogue between local actors was set up with the aim of identifying strategies to address the crisis. First separately and then together, farmers' groups and staff members of public organizations analyzed the existing situation, scenarios for the future of the area, and strategies to cope with the crisis. Contrary to the expectations of the participants, farmers and staff members of public organizations had productive discussions. This approach clarified how social learning can be achieved and governance improved in this situation of weak governance. © 2014 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Daniell K.A.,Australian National University | White I.,Australian National University | Ferrand N.,IRSTEA | Ribarova I.S.,University of Architecture, Civil Engineering and Geodesy | And 8 more authors.
Ecology and Society | Year: 2010

Broad-scale, multi-governance level, participatory water management processes intended to aid collective decision making and learning are rarely initiated, designed, implemented, and managed by one person. These processes mostly emerge from some form of collective planning and organization activities because of the stakes, time, and budgets involved in their implementation. Despite the potential importance of these collective processes for managing complex water-related social-ecological systems, little research focusing on the project teams that design and organize participatory water management processes has ever been undertaken. We have begun to fill this gap by introducing and outlining the concept of a co-engineering process and examining how it impacts the processes and outcomes of participatory water management. We used a hybrid form of intervention research in two broad-scale, multi-governance level, participatory water management processes in Australia and Bulgaria to build insights into these coengineering processes. We examined how divergent objectives and conflict in the project teams were negotiated, and the impacts of this co-engineering on the participatory water management processes. These investigations showed: (1) that language barriers may aid, rather than hinder, the process of stakeholder appropriation, collective learning and skills transferal related to the design and implementation of participatory water management processes; and (2) that diversity in co-engineering groups, if managed positively through collaborative work and integrative negotiations, can present opportunities and not just challenges for achieving a range of desired outcomes for participatory water management processes. A number of areas for future research on co-engineering participatory water management processes are also highlighted. © 2010 by the author(s).

Over the last decade, Algeria has encouraged the adoption of water saving systems by providing subsidies to fanners through a national plan for agricultural development, with particular attention paid to drip irrigation. This initiative has been successful only for a limited number of farmers. This work aims at analysing the determinants that influence the Algerian farmers in converting to the drip irrigation system. This work is based on a model (Logit) that allowed us to identify variables significantly influencing the innovation behaviour of fanners regarding the decision to adopt the system. The results show that subsidies, type of crop and educational level have positively affected adoption. However, the investment costs, conditions needed to access and lack hydraulic structure seem to have a negative affect the adoption drip irrigation.

Dionnet M.,Lisode | Daniell K.A.,Australian National University | Imache A.,Lisode | von Korff Y.,Lisode | And 5 more authors.
Ecology and Society | Year: 2013

Stakeholder and public participation in natural resources management (NRM) is now widely accepted as necessary to achieve sustainable development outcomes. Yet, effective implementation of participatory processes necessitates wellcalibrated methods and tools, as well as carefully honed facilitation skills that are difficult to gain without practice. Practitioners and academics leading these processes are thus encouraged to better reflect on, prepare, and justify their interventions, before starting to work in the field with stakeholders. Our paper shows how a Simulation Community of Practice (SCoP) was set up to support improved participatory practice. The specificity of this community is that its members not only discuss planned participatory interventions, but also simulate these processes by adopting roles of future participants, and by working through the different steps of the workshop that will be later implemented in the field. The evaluation of our approach shows that individual and social learning of participants in the SCoP is developed, leading mainly to improved facilitator skills and to calibration of the participatory methods and tools being tested. A space is also provided for deepening reflection on the purposes of the participatory process and the values that guide these interventions. Our experience could provide a model for others around the world to set up their own SCoP to support participatory NRM practice. Further improvements to our SCoP and new ones could be made by enhancing the feedback mechanisms between the field sites and the community, in order to encourage more cumulative learning and to reinforce the members' interest, maintaining their involvement in the community over time. © 2013 by the author(s).

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