Charles Y.,University of Paris 13 |
Gasperini M.,University of Paris 13 |
Disashi J.,University of Paris 13 |
Journal of Materials Processing Technology | Year: 2012
The present work focuses on non-linear finite element simulations of the Disk Pressure Test, used for characterization of hydrogen embrittlement of metallic materials by bulging out a thin disk under gas pressure until failure. The modeling is based on both elastoplastic and diffusion computations at the macroscopic scale. Hydrogen sensitive cohesive elements are used for crack propagation. Comparison of numerical predictions with experimental data on steel and Inconel gives good agreement both on macroscopic displacement-load curves and on global hydrogen embrittlement features. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Brace W.,Aalto University |
Journal of Engineering Design | Year: 2012
Complex system development activities, such as requirements analysis (RA) to requirements specification, implementation and verification, are well defined in the software engineering domain. Interests in using a model-driven engineering have increased in this domain. System-level RA and model-driven engineering may result in a significant improvement in engineering design. This paper presents a Checklist-Oriented Requirement Analysis (CORA) framework to develop and formalize requirements. CORA is an integrated framework that adopts a checklist concept and utilises logical reasoning operation in conjunction with information management to analyse systematically the initial requirements statement. An underground work machine is used as an application example to illustrate the proposed framework. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Cluzel F.,Ecole Centrale Paris |
Yannou B.,Ecole Centrale Paris |
Millet D.,LISMMA |
Leroy Y.,Ecole Centrale Paris
International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment | Year: 2014
Purpose: This paper considers the variabilities that exist in the exploitation of a complex industrial system. Our scenario-based LCA model ensures the reliability of results in situations where the system life cycle is very uncertain, where there is substantial lack of data, and/or where time and resources available are limited. It is also an effective tool to generate exploitation recommendations for clients. Methods: Existing quantitative uncertainty methods in LCA require a huge amount of accurate data. These data are rarely available in simplified and upstream LCA for complex industrial systems. A scenario-based approach is the best compromise between acceptable quality of results and resources required. However, such methods have not yet been proposed to improve the environmental knowledge of the system in the case of exploitation scenarios. The method proposed here considers a limited number of scenarios (three or four) that are defined using the Stanford Research Institute matrix. Using results from past projects, relevant parts of the system are listed, and expert knowledge and parameters are associated with these parts and quantified. A classical LCA process then provides the results for the different scenarios. Results and discussion: The method was applied to an Alstom Grid AC/DC conversion substation for the primary aluminum industry. A previous study had limited scope, as the life cycle was poorly understood. Relevant parts were, thus, clearly identified as follows: spare parts program, transport failures, preventive and corrective maintenance, updates and revampings, lifetime modulation, and end-of-life. Four scenarios were considered as follows: best case, worst case, baseline (expected future), and a highly different alternative. Results show the pertinence of considering several exploitation scenarios when the life cycle is not predictable, as the environmental impacts may vary widely from one case to another. A sensitivity analysis also shows that some relevant parts such as updates and revampings will need to be carefully considered in futures studies. Conclusions: The consideration of three exploitation scenarios (best case, baseline, and worst case) appears to be extremely pertinent when considering simplified LCA of industrial systems with high uncertainties and limited time and resources. This model is also very useful to generate good practice and recommendations towards clients, thus initiating a dialog centered on eco-design and continuous improvement. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Estampe D.,BEM Bordeaux Management School |
Lamouri S.,LISMMA |
Paris J.-L.,French National Center for Scientific Research |
Brahim-Djelloul S.,Institute National Of Commerce
International Journal of Production Economics | Year: 2013
Supply chain management creates value for companies, customers and stakeholders interacting throughout a supply chain. The strategic dimension of supply chains makes it paramount that their performances are measured. In today's performance evaluation processes, companies tend to refer to several models that will differ in terms of corporate organisation, the distribution of responsibilities and supply chain maturity. The present article analyzes various models used to assess supply chains by highlighting their specific characteristics and applicability in different contexts. It also offers an analytical grid breaking these models down into seven layers. This grid will help managers evolve towards a model that is more suitable for their needs. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Reyes T.,University of Technology of Troyes |
Progress in Industrial Ecology | Year: 2013
This paper aims to propose a new solution based on the progressive evolution of the environmental performance of the organisation considered by way of the design, deployment and enrichment of a 'classic' ecodesign tool. This is developed by a multi-functional team and acts as a learning vector within the company. This approach is called 'the environmental Trojan horse strategy' (ETHS) because the underlying strategy is to introduce an appropriate pretext that enables collaborative work (the ecodesign tool has to be co-designed) and to supply the organisation with the necessary skills to develop it further. This enables it to take into account many more environmental criteria and to integrate them better in the PDP. Applying the ETHS allows a company to progress along an integration trajectory from a partial ecodesign approach towards an eco-innovation approach. The proposed ETHS has been tested in a French SME for five years. Copyright © 2013 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.