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Seixas R.,The Interdisciplinary Center | Pissarra H.,The Interdisciplinary Center | Santos J.,The Interdisciplinary Center | Bernardino R.,Lisbon Zoo Veterinary Hospital | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2014

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important pathogen that has been implicated in a number of serious conditions in humans and animals. Studies regarding the efficacy of antimicrobial drugs against virulent strains of P. aeruginosa in human and animal hosts have demonstrated that common therapeutic options are sometimes ineffective. In captive animals, in particular reptiles, literature on this topic is scarce. In this study, a 6-yr-old monitor lizard, Varanus niloticus, died suddenly without previous symptoms. Postmortem examination and bacteriologic analysis of necropsy samples revealed severe fibrinonecrotic enteritis caused by P. aeruginosa. The isolate presented a typical resistance profile, showing resistance to amoxycillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cephotaxime, and sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim. Virulence characterization demonstrated that the bacterium was able to express hemolysins, DNases, gelatinases, and lipases and had biofilm-forming ability. This study highlights the importance of surveillance for antimicrobial resistance and virulence traits in captive animals, which may present a challenge to practitioners. © 2014 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.

Marques P.I.,University of Porto | Marques P.I.,University of Oviedo | Bernardino R.,Lisbon Zoo Veterinary Hospital | Fernandes T.,Lisbon Zoo Veterinary Hospital | And 4 more authors.
Genome Biology and Evolution | Year: 2012

The kallikrein (KLK) gene family comprises the largest uninterrupted locus of serine proteases in the human genome and represents a notable case for studying the evolutionary fate of duplicated genes. In primates, a recent duplication event gave rise to KLK2 and KLK3, both encoding essential proteins for the cascade of seminal plasma liquefaction. We reconstructed the evolutionary history of KLK2 and KLK3 by comparative analysis of theorthologous sequences from 22 primate species, calculated dN/dS ratios, and addressed the hypothesis of coevolution with their substrates, the semenogelins (SEMG1 and SEMG2). Our findings support the placement of the KLK2-KLK3 duplication in the Catarrhini ancestor and unveil the frequent loss of KLK2 throughout primate evolution by different genomic mechanisms, including unequal crossing-over, deletions, and pseudogenization. We provide evidences for an adaptive evolution of KLK3 toward an expanded enzymatic spectrum, with an effect on the hydrolysis of semen coagulum. Furthermore, we found associations between mating system, the number of SEMG repeat units, and the number of functional KLK2 and KLK3, suggesting complex evolutionary dynamics shaped by reproductive biology. © The Author(s) 2012.

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