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Fairburn S.,Robert Gordon University | Mohanty S.,Earth20rbit LLC | Imhof A.B.,Liquifer Systems Group LSG
Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC | Year: 2014

While past visions of future cities were often inspired by space and exploration of the unknown, and thus based in science fiction, we propose future visions of the city based in science fact; that which is known and learned from our accumulated space exploration experience. Technological spin-offs from space design could integrate into our daily lives, but the confined conditions of extraterrestrial shuttles seldom serve as Earthly inspiration. If Earth were a spaceship and we were the Astronauts, how would we live differently? What if living conditions in outer space informed and exchanged the cramped social environments down below, such as the worker-housing and informal settlements in our mega-cities? How can space systems inform the structure and workings of extreme urban environments? We are exploring the City as a Spaceship and the reciprocities it offers by mapping extraterrestrial experiences onto earthly settings. Half the world's 7.25 billion inhabitants (Population Clock at 11.41 GMT on 15/08/2014) live in urban settings. Sao Paolo, Tokyo, Mexico City, Mumbai, Moscow, New York City, Hong Kong, London are the big cities, the Megatropolises, which all have rapidly growing populations within their densely packed urban centres with equally densely packed peripheries. Living conditions on Earth must change, irrespective of economic or social status, so that we can equalize opportunity and achieve a better standard of living for all. We propose that the (mega) City and the Spaceship be viewed as parallel and reciprocal case studies to think about contemporary forms of working and personal engagement; compact spaces, multifunctional spaces, public-private spaces, resource management, alternative energy harvesting, waste management, health management and inclusion of nature into our built-up environment. City As A Spaceship (CMS) inspires technological humane innovation by positing the spaceship as an analogy of the modern, densely built urban space, with its complex structures and technologically advanced infrastructure, where the designed intention is to configure all systems to eco-efficiency to optimize the use of available resources. We believe the time is now to meet our primary needs through CAAS architecture and design, using technologies for space that can immediately impact the humane retrofitting of these cities. The CAAS City can be an inspiration, an alternate view, for a future city and a way to project and achieve our dreams and visions of an equitable and environment-friendly urban life. Source


Imhof B.,Liquifer Systems Group LSG | Ransom S.,Liquifer Systems Group | Frischauf N.,LSG Inc | Hauplik-Meusburger S.,LSG Inc | And 4 more authors.
61st International Astronautical Congress 2010, IAC 2010 | Year: 2010

The work described in this paper was done under an ESA and Thales Alenia Space contract within the framework of the study "Analysis of Surface Architecture for European Space Exploration - Element Design." It deals with the design of a rover, named in memory of the late Sir Arthur C. Clark, RAMA (Rover for Advanced Mission Applications, Rover for Advanced Moon Applications, Rover for Advanced Mars Applications), for future manned space missions to the moon or Mars. The rover serves as a habitat, a refuge and a research laboratory/workshop and as transport for the astronauts in a controlled and protected environment and in relative comfort during surface traverses of these planetary bodies.. The results of these analyses were subsequently used in an investigation of various designs from which a single concept was developed that satisfied scientific as well as environmental requirements encountered during surface exploration of the moon and Mars. The rover meets the scientific and operational requirements defined during the course of the Surface Architecture Study. It is designed for surface missions with a crew of two or three lasting up to approximately 40 days, its source of energy, a liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen fuel cell, allowing it to be driven and operated during the day as well as the night. Guidance, navigation and obstacle avoidance systems are foreseen as standard equipment to allow it to travel safely over rough terrain at all times of the day. The rover allows extra-vehicular activity and a remote manipulator is provided to recover surface samples, to deploy surface instruments and equipment and, in general, to assist the astronauts' field activities wherever and whenever needed. The vehicle has also been designed to have a very high degree of manoeuvrability. In addition, RAMA may be operated and replenished from a fixed site base or co-operate with other rovers of the same type to provide a mobile base. The rover in all cases will be refuelled using the products supplied by an in situ resources facility. Copyright ©2010 by the International Astronautical Federation. All rights reserved. Source


Schlacht I.L.,Polytechnic of Milan | Schlacht I.L.,TU Berlin | Roetting M.,TU Berlin | Masali M.,University of Turin | And 3 more authors.
Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC | Year: 2012

Until now, human factors in the discipline that is concerned with the interactions between humans and other elements of a system have not been taken into account appropriately, which is why the level of performance on space stations, from the Mir to the current International Space Station, is reportedly low. As underlined by the European Cooperation for Space Standardization, the integration of sound human factors into all project phases related to human space mission, starting from the very beginning, has become a primary necessity, in particular considering the approaching scenario of long duration/range missions. As a means for dealing with this need, this work proposes a new conceptual model, which focuses on incorporating human factors principles right from the preliminary design phase into all aspects of long-duration/range human mission projects in order to improve habitability. The new conceptual model developed during five years of doctoral research at TU-Berlin (Schlacht, 2012)', referred to herein as the Integrated Design Process (IDP), incorporates three key design principles: habitability factors, a user-centered approach, and a holistic methodology. The conceptual model was tested against existing models in four separate studies, specifically: a study on Moon Base design at the SSDW 2009; a study to investigate habitability on the Mars Desert Research Station; a study to design space equipment for system operations at the TU-Berlin; and a study to design a closed-loop habitat for long duration missions with the DLR. The results suggest that employing such a model during the design phase of a space mission will improve habitability and usability of the item under development, thus improving user performance, safety, and ultimately mission success. The implications of such a model extend beyond application in space and include other environments where individuals are expected to live and work in confined areas for extended periods of time, such as in research laboratories in Antarctica. It can also be applied in megacities as well as in retirement homes. Source


Imhof A.B.,Liquifer Systems Group LSG | Kotler J.M.,Leiden University | Pell S.J.,ARTi Aquabatics Research Team | Peljhan M.,SPACE SI
Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC | Year: 2012

The arts offer alternative insights into reality - which is explored by science in general, and broadened by the activities conducted by the European Space Agency (ESA) and other space agencies. Similar to the way the members of ESA are ambassadors for spaceflight and science, artists and cultural professionals are ambassadors for human expression, experimentation, and exploration. In June 2011, the ESA Topical Team Arts & Science (ETTAS), held a three-day workshop at the European Astronaut Centre in Cologne, Germany. During this workshop, topics and ideas were discussed to develop cooperations between the arts, sciences and ESA to foster and expand the human and cultural aspects of space exploration, and at the same time offer a means of communication that aims to reach audiences beyond the scope of traditional space-related channels. The preliminary findings and consensus of the team was that establishing and sustaining a transdisciplinary professional community consisting of ESA representatives, scientists and artists would fuel knowledge transfer, and mutual inspiration. [Imhof et.al. 2012] Potential ways to provide a sustainable cooperation within and between the various groups were discussed and will be presented. A number of measures and mechanisms in order to initiate and conduct such an initiative and a more in- depth view regarding organizational measures, procedures and consequences, as well as a proposition on how to proceed are included in the preliminary findings. Overall, the involvement and cooperation between the Arts, Space Science Research and ESA will enhance in the citizens of the ESA member states the sense of public ownership of ESA results, and participation in ESA's research. Copyright © (2012) by the International Astronautical Federation. Source


Pell S.J.,Aquabatics Research Team ARTi | Imhof A.B.,Liquifer Systems Group LSG | Waldvogel C.,Waldvogel | Kotler J.M.,Leiden University | Peljhan M.,University of California at Santa Barbara
Acta Astronautica | Year: 2014

The arts offer alternative insights into reality, which are explored by science in general, and broadened by the activities conducted by the European Space Agency [4] and other space agencies. Similar to the way the members of ESA are ambassadors for spaceflight and science, artists and cultural professionals are ambassadors for human expression, experimentation, and exploration. In June 2011, the ESA Topical Team Arts and Sciences (ETTAS) held a three-day workshop at the European Astronaut Centre in Cologne, Germany. During this workshop, topics and ideas were discussed to develop initiatives between the arts, sciences and ESA. The aim was to foster and expand the human and cultural aspects of space exploration, and at the same time offer a means of communication that aims to reach audiences beyond the scope of traditional space-related channels. The consensus of the team was that establishing and sustaining a transdisciplinary professional community consisting of ESA representatives, scientists and artists would fuel knowledge transfer, and mutual inspiration. Potential ways to provide a sustainable cooperation within and between the various groups were discussed. We present the preliminary findings including a number of measures and mechanisms to initiate and conduct such an initiative. Plausible organisational measures, procedures and consequences, as well as a proposition on how to proceed are also discussed. Overall, the involvement and cooperation between the arts, space science research and ESA will enhance in the citizens of the ESA member states the sense of public ownership of ESA results, and participation in ESA's research. © 2014 IAA. Source

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