Bangor, United Kingdom
Bangor, United Kingdom

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Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: NMP-2010-4.0-1 | Award Amount: 13.15M | Year: 2011

The aim of the MultiFun consortium is to develop and validate a novel and minimally-invasive nanotechnology system to improve cancer diagnosis and treatment. MultiFun nanotechnology is based on multifunctionalised magnetic nanoparticles to selectively target and eliminate breast and pancreatic cancer (stem) cells. The improved magnetic features of the MultiFun magnetic nanoparticles will lead to potential medical applications such as contrast agents and magnetic heating inductors. Moreover, magnetic nanoparticles can be functionalised with ligands to increase their affinity towards cancer cells in order to facilitate diagnosis of tumours by MRI. Targeting peptides and antibodies will be employed, including antibodies against cancer stem cells leading to early cancer detection by MRI means. The same nanoparticles will be used simultaneously as functional nanocarriers and heating inductors in order to provide a combined therapeutic modality. The synergistic effects of drugs, peptides, small RNAs and heat will be evaluated to determine the effectiveness of different therapeutic combinations. Interestingly, the use of ligands will favour the specific application of the therapeutic modalities to cancer (stem) cells, increasing the effectiveness and reducing side effects. Thus, MultiFun multimodal therapeutic approach is designed to efficiently remove cancer cells, including cancer stem cells, from the tumour site. The toxicity of functionalised magnetic nanoparticles will be assessed in vitro and in vivo to warrant a safe use and shed some light on the risks. The distribution and activity evaluation of functionalised nanoparticles will be performed in human breast and pancreatic cancer xenograft models. The use of novel magnetic nanoparticles for biomedical applications provides opportunities for new instrumentation: 1) detection and quantification of magnetic nanoparticles in blood, urine and tissues, and 2) magnetic heating induction for raising cell temperature.

Vallejo-Fernandez G.,University of York | Ogrady K.,University of York | Ogrady K.,Liquids Research Ltd.
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2013

Magnetic hyperthermia using magnetic nanoparticles is a potential remedial therapy for the reduction of cancer and other tumours. The dominant heating mechanism is hysteresis heating. This means that control of the particle size distribution is essential. However, control of the anisotropy dispersion is also required. We have calculated the effect of the anisotropy distribution on the hysteresis heating in magnetic nanoparticles for hyperthermia applications. Where there is a wide distribution of anisotropy constants the heat output is controlled by the distribution of anisotropy constants. This effect is significant in systems such as magnetite particles where shape anisotropy dominates. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

Vallejo-Fernandez G.,University of York | Whear O.,University of York | Roca A.G.,University of York | Hussain S.,Liquids Research Ltd | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics | Year: 2013

We report on a theoretical framework for magnetic hyperthermia where the amount of heat generated by nanoparticles can be understood when both the physical and hydrodynamic size distributions are known accurately. The model is validated by studying the magnetic, colloidal and heating properties of magnetite/maghemite nanoparticles of different sizes dispersed in solvents of varying viscosity. We show that heating arising due to susceptibility losses can be neglected with hysteresis loss being the dominant mechanism. We show that it is crucial to measure the specific absorption rate of samples only when embedded in a solid matrix to avoid heating by stirring. However the data shows that distributions of both size and anisotropy must be included in theoretical models. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Roca A.G.,University of York | Wiese B.,University of York | Timmis J.,Liquids Research Ltd. | Vallejo-Fernandez G.,University of York | O'Grady K.,University of York
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics | Year: 2012

We have undertaken studies of the heating rate in three sets of magnetic nanoparticles for their application in magnetic hyperthermia. The nanoparticles were magnetite-maghemite with average particle diameters of 5, 28, and 45 nm, respectively. All samples were synthesized in an aqueous media and have a narrow size distribution. These sizes represent particles which are single domain, particles which lie close to the single domain multi-domain boundary, and particles which are probably multidomain. The heating rate is greater for the largest particles when an alternating magnetic field of 250 Oe and a frequency of 110 kHz are applied. The significant increase in heating for the 45 nm particles suggests that heating may be associated with particle rotation. © 1965-2012 IEEE.

Agency: GTR | Branch: Innovate UK | Program: | Phase: Feasibility Study | Award Amount: 24.90K | Year: 2012

This project aims to produce magnetic nanoparticles of median size 10-12nm (nanometers) with a narrow size distribution having a spread of particle sizes of 3nm for incorporation in high technology magnetic liquids known as ferrofluids. These liquids consist of vacuum oils containing magnetic nanoparticles such that the resulting liquid behaves as a true magnetic liquid. Such materials have widespread high value application in vacuum coating machines and chemical vapour deposition devices used for the production of many products including flat screen displays and photo-voltaic cells. The liquids are used to form rotating shaft seals that deliver the power into vacuum systems to move components through various stages of the coating process.

Agency: GTR | Branch: Innovate UK | Program: | Phase: Smart - Development of Prototype | Award Amount: 103.94K | Year: 2016

Polymer microbeads are uniform spheres of polystyrene which can be functionalised so that they will attach to proteins and other entities in blood plasma or other bodily fluids. The microbeads are impregnated with nanoparticles of magnetite, iron oxide, so that they can be separated using a magnetic field allowing quantitative analysis or assay. Microbeads are available in sizes down to 0.3µ but there is a demand for beads with sizes <0.1µ. At this size it is not possible to get a sufficient loading of magnetite so that the separation of the molecules can be achieved. The only way to increase the magnetic content is to use a metallic material where the magnetisation is 4 times greater. Liquids Research Ltd (LRL) has held discussions with Merck Chimie who are the largest company in the EU in the microbead market. They have sales in excess of €300M/year in a world market approaching €1B. We are told that there is a substantial and immediate market for metallic magnetic nanoparticles for inclusion in polymer beads. Metallic nanoparticles are generally unstable in air. Recent academic work indicates that metallic nanoparticles can be encapsulated in a carbon shell rendering them stable. LRL has undertaken a feasibility study funded by the Welsh Assembly Government through the SMART programme and we have reproduced this academic work confirming this result. The objective of this project is to scale up the production of metallic magnetic nanoparticles >20g batches which would fulfil the requirements set by Merck for production trials of polymer beads. There remain technical issues to be resolved associated with the particles fusing together on a production scale and the dispersion of the in styrene which can be polymerised. In the bio-medical field there are rigorous specifications for new materials which we will undertake using our ISO9001 accreditation. The achievement of a 20g batch size would be adequate for bead production as the demand is 1kg/year.

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