Carcinogenesis | Year: 2010
As part of a shift toward macromolecule production to support continuous cell proliferation, cancer cells coordinate the activation of lipid biosynthesis and the signaling networks that stimulate this process. A ubiquitous metabolic event in cancer is the constitutive activation of the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway, which produces saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) to sustain the increasing demand of new membrane phospholipids with appropriate acyl composition. In cancer cells, the tandem activation of the fatty acid biosynthetic enzymes adenosine triphosphate citrate lyase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) leads to increased synthesis of SFA and their further conversion into MUFA by stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) 1. The roles of adenosine triphosphate citrate lyase, ACC and FAS in the pathogenesis of cancer have been a subject of extensive investigation. However, despite early experimental and epidemiological observations reporting elevated levels of MUFA in cancer cells and tissues, the involvement of SCD1 in the mechanisms of carcinogenesis remains surprisingly understudied. Over the past few years, a more detailed picture of the functional relevance of SCD1 in cell proliferation, survival and transformation to cancer has begun to emerge. The present review addresses the mounting evidence that argues for a key role of SCD1 in the coordination of the intertwined pathways of lipid biosynthesis, energy sensing and the transduction signals that influence mitogenesis and tumorigenesis, as well as the potential value of this enzyme as a target for novel pharmacological approaches in cancer interventions. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
Williams N.M.,University of California at Davis |
Biological Conservation | Year: 2013
Habitat loss from urban development threatens native plant populations in many regions of the world. In addition to direct plant mortality, urban intensification potentially impacts pollinator communities and in turn disrupts the pollination mutualisms that are critical to the viability of native plant populations. We placed standardized flowering plant arrays into woodlands along a gradient of increasing urban land use to simultaneously quantify landscape-scale and local-scale effects on pollinators and on reproduction of two spring ephemeral wildflowers (Claytonia virginica and Polemonium reptans) in woodland fragments in the Mid-Atlantic Region of North America. Greater pollinator abundance and associated diversity significantly reduced the degree of pollen limitation, demonstrating that pollinator populations are critical to successful pollination of these plant populations. However, landscape-scale habitat loss did not reduce pollinator abundance or diversity. Habitat loss at the landscape scale therefore does not appear to drive changes in pollination in this woodland system. Rather, local-scale habitat characteristics were more important, with pollinators being more abundant in brighter woodland patches for one plant species, and in larger patches for the other species. Because we found abundant pollinators and adequate pollination even in isolated, urban woodland fragments, our results are encouraging for the conservation of both plants and pollinators in urban landscapes. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Verpeut J.L.,Lipman |
Bello N.T.,Lipman |
Bello N.T.,Rutgers University
Expert Opinion on Drug Safety | Year: 2014
Introduction: Obesity is a known health risk for the development of several preventable diseases. Obesity-related metabolic alterations negatively impact different physiological mechanisms, which supports the rationale for the use of combined drug therapy. Naltrexone is an opioid antagonist for the treatment of opioid and alcohol dependency, whereas bupropion is a norepinephrine/dopamine reuptake inhibitor used to treat depression and smoking cessation. Although not effective as individual monotherapies for obesity, naltrexone and bupropion in combination produce weight loss and a metabolic profile beneficial for the potential treatment of obesity. Areas covered: This review examines the safety and antiobesity effects of naltrexone and bupropion alone and in combination. It reviews the results of four Phase III clinical trials of a novel fixed dose of sustained-released naltrexone/bupropion. Expert opinion: Naltrexone/bupropion has a greater weight loss efficacy than two FDA-approved medications, orlistat and lorcaserin. Although the weight loss produced by phentermine/topiramate is superior to naltrexone/bupropion, the safety profile of naltrexone/bupropion has less severe adverse effects. In addition, naltrexone/bupropion is well tolerated, with nausea being the most reported adverse event. Unlike other centrally acting medications, lorcaserin and phentermine/topiramate, naltrexone/bupropion has no abuse potential. © Informa UK, Ltd.
Rader R.,Lipman |
Reilly J.,Lipman |
Bartomeus I.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences |
Global Change Biology | Year: 2013
If climate change affects pollinator-dependent crop production, this will have important implications for global food security because insect pollinators contribute to production for 75% of the leading global food crops. We investigate whether climate warming could result in indirect impacts upon crop pollination services via an overlooked mechanism, namely temperature-induced shifts in the diurnal activity patterns of pollinators. Using a large data set on bee pollination of watermelon crops, we predict how pollination services might change under various climate change scenarios. Our results show that under the most extreme IPCC scenario (A1F1), pollination services by managed honey bees are expected to decline by 14.5%, whereas pollination services provided by most native, wild taxa are predicted to increase, resulting in an estimated aggregate change in pollination services of +4.5% by 2099. We demonstrate the importance of native biodiversity in buffering the impacts of climate change, because crop pollination services would decline more steeply without the native, wild pollinators. More generally, our study provides an important example of how biodiversity can stabilize ecosystem services against environmental change. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Joska T.M.,Rutgers University |
Mashruwala A.,Lipman |
Boyd J.M.,Lipman |
Belden W.J.,Rutgers University
Journal of Microbiological Methods | Year: 2014
Cloning by homologous recombination (HR) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an extremely efficient and cost-effective alternative to other methods of recombinant DNA technologies. Unfortunately, it is incompatible with all the various specialized plasmids currently used in microbiology and biomedical research laboratories, and is therefore, not widely adopted. In an effort to dramatically improve the versatility of yeast gap-repair cloning and make it compatible with any DNA plasmid, we demonstrate that by simply including a yeast-cloning cassette (YCC) that contains the 2-micron origin of replication (2. μm ori) and the ura3 gene for selection, multiple DNA fragments can be assembled into any DNA vector. We show this has almost unlimited potential by building a variety of plasmid for different uses including: recombinant protein production, epitope tagging, site-directed mutagenesis, and expression of fluorescent fusion proteins. We demonstrate the use in a variety of plasmids for use in microbial systems and even demonstrate it can be used in a vertebrate model. This method is remarkably simple and extremely efficient, plus it provides a significant cost saving over commercially available kits. © 2014 The Authors.
FEMS Microbiology Ecology | Year: 2010
We are becoming increasingly aware of the role played by archaea in the biogeochemical cycling of the elements. Metabolism of metals is linked to fundamental metabolic functions, including nitrogen fixation, energy production, and cellular processes based on oxidoreductions. Comparative genomic analyses have shown that genes for metabolism, resistance, and detoxification of metals are widespread throughout the archaeal domain. Archaea share with other organisms strategies allowing them to utilize essential metals and maintain metal ions within a physiological range, although comparative proteomics show, in a few cases, preferences for specific genetic traits related to metals. A more in-depth understanding of the physiology of acidophilic archaea might lead to the development of new strategies for the bioremediation of metal-polluted sites and other applications, such as biomining. © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies.
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2012
Waste grease lipids used in animal feeds have been the cause of food recalls in Europe, where such materials were incorporated into animal feedstuffs. This resulted in unwanted residues in human food. The composition of such lipid sources has been lacking. Seventeen composite trap grease and isolated brown grease samples were analyzed. Analytes included nutrients, metals, and volatile organic compounds. Analytes were selected for relevance to wastewater treatment and resource reuse potential. Moisture averaged 89.4% and the pH was 3.8. The 5-day biological oxygen demand was 32,531 mg/liter, solids were 7.5%, and fats, oil, and grease were 48,970 mg/liter. Non-polychlorinated biphenyl volatile organic compounds were surveyed. In the 17 grease samples, 14 contained an average of 102.5 μg/liter chloroform; 11 samples contained acetone, averaging 369 μg/liter; 9 samples contained 2- butanone, with an average of 484 μg/liter; and 8 contained an average of 710 μg/liter methylene chloride and toluene at 311 μg/liter. The mean concentration of copper in 17 composite samples ranged from 15 to 239 μg/liter, iron averaged 314 μg/liter, lead means ranged from 2.5 to 24 μg/liter, and magnesium averaged 975 μg/liter. It is hypothesized that food preparation facility cleaning and chlorinated cleaning-disinfection agents combined with the organics in the low-pH environment of the traps produce potentially carcinogenic compounds. It is recommended that these waste grease materials be used as a feedstock for biofuel. © International Association for Food Protection.
Arthropod Systematics and Phylogeny | Year: 2012
Epiophlebia diana sp.n. is described from larval specimens collected in the mountains of western Sichuan Province, China. Epiophlebian taxonomy, life history, and biogeography are reviewed, and keys provided for determination of the known adults and larvae of Epiophlebia Calvert, 1903. Classification of Epiophlebia is revised as follows: Epiophlebia s.str. with E. superstes (Selys, 1889) [type species] and E. sinensis Li & Nel, 2012; and Rheoepiophlebia subgen.n. with E. laidlawi Tillyard, 1921 [type species] and E. diana sp.n.. Behavioral, ecological and paleontological information is also evaluated and members of Epiophlebia acknowledged to have inhabited small high elevation streams of the east Palaearctic for possibly 180 million years. Likely reasons are proposed for the enduring survival of Epiophlebia, its lack of a fossil record and the extinction of related groups. © Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung.
Lipman | Date: 2016-01-30