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Yanai R.,Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary | Mulki L.,Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary | Hasegawa E.,Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary | Takeuchi K.,Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary | And 9 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2014

Ocular neovascularization, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), is a primary cause of blindness in individuals of industrialized countries. With a projected increase in the prevalence of these blinding neovascular diseases, there is an urgent need for new pharmacological interventions for their treatment or prevention. Increasing evidence has implicated eicosanoid-like metabolites of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) in the regulation of neovascular disease. In particular, metabolites generated by the cytochrome P450 (CYP)-epoxygenase pathway have been shown to be potent modulators of angiogenesis, making this pathway a reasonable previously unidentified target for intervention in neovascular ocular disease. Here we show that dietary supplementation with ω-3 LCPUFAs promotes regression of choroidal neovessels in a well-characterized mouse model of neovascular AMD. Leukocyte recruitment and adhesion molecule expression in choroidal neovascular lesions were down-regulated in mice fed ω-3 LCPUFAs. The serum of these mice showed increased levels of anti-inflammatory eicosanoids derived from eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. 17,18-epoxyeicosatetraenoic acid and 19,20-epoxydocosapentaenoic acid, the major CYP-generated metabolites of these primary ω-3 LCPUFAs, were identified as key lipid mediators of disease resolution. We conclude that CYP-derived bioactive lipid metabolites from ω-3 LCPUFAs are potent inhibitors of intraocular neovascular disease and show promising therapeutic potential for resolution of neovascular AMD. Source

Gomolka B.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Siegert E.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Blossey K.,Lipidomix GmbH | Schunck W.-H.,Max Delbruck Center for Molecular Medicine | And 2 more authors.
Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators | Year: 2011

Mass spectrometry techniques have enabled the identification of different lipid metabolites and mediators derived from omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 and n-3 PUFA) that are implicated in various biological processes. However, the broad-spectrum assessment of physiologically formed lipid metabolites and mediators in blood samples has not been presented so far. Here lipid mediators and metabolites of the n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid as well as the long-chain n-3 PUFA eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were measured in human blood samples as well as in mouse blood. There were detectable but mostly very low amounts of the assayed compounds in human native plasma samples, whereas in vitro activation of whole blood with the calcium ionophore A23187 led to highly significant increases of metabolite formation, with a predominance of the 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX) products 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE), 12-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (12-HEPE) and 14-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (14-HDHA). A23187 activation also led to significant increases in the formation of 5-LOX products including leukotriene B4 (LTB4), leukotriene B5 (LTB 5) as well as of 15-LOX products and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and thromboxane B2 (TXB2). Levels were similar or even higher in A23187-activated mouse blood. The approach presented here thus provides a protocol for the comprehensive and concomitant assessment of the generation capacity of n-3 and n-6 PUFA-derived lipid metabolites as well as thromboxanes and prostaglandins in human and murine blood samples. Further studies will now have to evaluate lipid metabolite generation capacity in different physiological and pathophysiological contexts. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source

Ma D.K.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute | Ma D.K.,University of California at San Francisco | Li Z.,CAS Institute of Biophysics | Lu A.Y.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute | And 6 more authors.
Cell | Year: 2015

Cells adapt to temperature shifts by adjusting levels of lipid desaturation and membrane fluidity. This fundamental process occurs in nearly all forms of life, but its mechanism in eukaryotes is unknown. We discovered that the evolutionarily conserved Caenorhabditis elegans gene acdh-11 (acyl-CoA dehydrogenase [ACDH]) facilitates heat adaptation by regulating the lipid desaturase FAT-7. Human ACDH deficiency causes the most common inherited disorders of fatty acid oxidation, with syndromes that are exacerbated by hyperthermia. Heat upregulates acdh-11 expression to decrease fat-7 expression. We solved the high-resolution crystal structure of ACDH-11 and established the molecular basis of its selective and high-affinity binding to C11/C12-chain fatty acids. ACDH-11 sequesters C11/C12-chain fatty acids and prevents these fatty acids from activating nuclear hormone receptors and driving fat-7 expression. Thus, the ACDH-11 pathway drives heat adaptation by linking temperature shifts to regulation of lipid desaturase levels and membrane fluidity via an unprecedented mode of fatty acid signaling. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source

Kosel M.,Max Delbruck Center for Molecular Medicine | Kosel M.,Humboldt University of Berlin | Wild W.,Humboldt University of Berlin | Bell A.,Humboldt University of Berlin | And 5 more authors.
Biochemical Journal | Year: 2011

Caenorhabditis elegans harbours several CYP (cytochrome P450) genes that are homologous with mammalian CYP isoforms important to the production of physiologically active AA (arachidonic acid) metabolites. We tested the hypothesis that mammals and C. elegans may share similar basic mechanisms of CYP-dependent eicosanoid formation and action. We focused on CYP33E2, an isoform related to the human AA-epoxygenases CYP2C8 and CYP2J2. Co-expression of CYP33E2 with the human NADPH-CYP reductase in insect cells resulted in the reconstitution of an active microsomal mono-oxygenase system that metabolized EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and, with lower activity, also AA to specific sets of regioisomeric epoxy- and hydroxy-derivatives. The main products included 17,18-epoxyeicosatetraenoic acid from EPA and 19-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid from AA. Using nematode worms carrying a pCYP33E2::GFP reporter construct, we found that CYP33E2 is exclusively expressed in the pharynx, where it is predominantly localized in the marginal cells. RNAi (RNA interference)-mediated CYP33E2 expression silencing as well as treatments with inhibitors of mammalian AA-metabolizing CYP enzymes, significantly reduced the pharyngeal pumping frequency of adult C. elegans. These results demonstrate that EPA and AA are efficient CYP33E2 substrates and suggest that CYP-eicosanoids, influencing in mammals the contractility of cardiomyocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells, may function in C. elegans as regulators of the pharyngeal pumping activity. © The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 Biochemical Society. Source

Falck J.R.,Southwestern University | Wallukat G.,Max Delbruck Center for Molecular Medicine | Puli N.,Southwestern University | Goli M.,Southwestern University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2011

17(R),18(S)-Epoxyeicosatetraenoic acid [17(R),18(S)-EETeTr], a cytochrome P450 epoxygenase metabolite of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), exerts negative chronotropic effects and protects neonatal rat cardiomyocytes against Ca 2+-overload with EC50 ≈ 1-2 nM. Structure-activity studies revealed that a cis-Δ11,12- or Δ14,15- olefin and a 17(R),18(S)-epoxide are minimal structural elements for antiarrhythmic activity whereas antagonist activity was often associated with the combination of a Δ14,15-olefin and a 17(S),18(R)-epoxide. Compared with natural material, the agonist and antagonist analogues are chemically and metabolically more robust and several show promise as templates for future development of clinical candidates. © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source

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