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Richard C.,Laval University | Couture P.,Laval University | Couture P.,Lipid Research Center | Desroches S.,Laval University | And 2 more authors.
Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases

Background and aims: No study has yet examined how weight loss modifies the impact of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) on cardiovascular risk factors in men with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). The objective of the study was to assess the efficacy of MedDiet, with and without weight loss, to modify the cardiometabolic risk profile of male patients with MetS. Methods and results: Twenty-six men aged between 24 and 62 years with the MetS consumed a North American control diet for 5 weeks followed by a 5-week MedDiet, both under weight-maintaining conditions. Participants then underwent a 20-week weight loss period, after which they consumed the MedDiet for five weeks under weight stable conditions. Body weight was reduced by 10.2% ± 2.9% after the weight loss period (p < 0.001). All foods were provided to participants during the weight stable phases of the study. The MedDiet in the absence of weight loss decreased total plasma cholesterol (C) (-7.1%), LDL-C (-9.3%) and the total/HDL-C ratio (-6.5%) compared to the control diet (all p < 0.04). The MedDiet combined with weight loss led to reductions in systolic blood pressure (-4.7%), diastolic blood pressure (-7.7%), triglycerides (-18.2%), ApoB (-10.7%), fasting glucose (-4.2%) and insulin (-29.9%) compared to the control diet (all p < 0.001). Conclusion: The MedDiet in the absence of weight loss leads to significant changes in plasma cholesterol concentrations but has little effects on other cardiometabolic risk factors associated with the MetS in men. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Borel A.-L.,University of Quebec | Nazare J.-A.,University of Quebec | Smith J.,University of Quebec | Almeras N.,University of Quebec | And 6 more authors.

Excess visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is associated with an increased cardiometabolic risk. The study examined whether changes in cardiometabolic risk markers after a 1-year lifestyle intervention in viscerally obese men were associated with changes in VAT or with changes in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT). The relative contributions of changes in global adiposity vs. changes in cardiorespiratory fitness to changes in VAT were also quantified. One hundred and forty four men were selected on the basis of an increased waist circumference (90 cm) associated with dyslipidemia (triglycerides ≥1.69 and/or high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol <1.03 mmol/l); 117 men completed the 1-year intervention which consisted in a healthy eating, physical activity/exercise program. Body weight, body composition, and fat distribution were assessed by anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)/computed tomography. Cardiorespiratory fitness, plasma adipokine/inflammatory markers, fasting lipoprotein-lipid profile, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were assessed. VAT volume decreased by 26%, cardiorespiratory fitness improved by 20% (P< 0.0001) after 1 year. Plasma adipokine/inflammatory markers, lipids/lipoproteins, and glucose homeostasis were improved. One-year changes in triglyceride (r = 0.29), apolipoprotein B (r = 0.21), 120-min OGTT-glucose (r = 0.27), and fasting insulin (r = 0.27) levels correlated with changes in VAT (all P< 0.05) after adjustment for changes in SAT. Using a multilinear regression model, VAT reduction was independently associated with SAT reduction and with improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness (R 2 = 0.58, P< 0.0001). Therefore, this healthy eating-physical activity/exercise program improved the cardiometabolic risk profile of viscerally obese men in relation to the reduction of VAT. Furthermore, the reduction in VAT was independently related to the reduction in global adiposity and to the improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness. © 2011 The Obesity Society. Source

Conway V.,Laval University | Couture P.,Laval University | Couture P.,Lipid Research Center | Gauthier S.,Laval University | And 2 more authors.

Objectives: Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) found in buttermilk is rich in unique bioactive proteins. Several studies suggest that MFGM proteins possess biological activities such as cholesterol-lowering, antiviral, antibacterial, and anticancer properties, but data in humans are lacking. Furthermore, to our knowledge, no study has yet investigated the antihypertensive potential of MFGM proteins from buttermilk. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of buttermilk consumption on blood pressure and on markers of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAS) system in humans. Methods: Men and women (N = 34) with plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol < 5 mmol/L and normal blood pressure (< 140 mm Hg) were recruited in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Their diets were supplemented with 45 g/d of buttermilk and with 45 g/d of a macro-/micronutrient-matched placebo in random order (4 wk for each diet). Results: Buttermilk consumption significantly reduced systolic blood pressure (-2.6 mm Hg; P = 0.009), mean arterial blood pressure (-1.7 mm Hg; P = 0.015), and plasma levels of the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (-10.9%; P = 0.003) compared with the placebo, but had no effect on plasma concentrations of angiotensin II and aldosterone. Conclusion: Short-term buttermilk consumption reduces blood pressure in normotensive individuals. © 2014 The Authors. Source

Rudkowska I.,Lipid Research Center

The proportion of elderly is growing worldwide. This trend is in parallel to an increase in diseases, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). Plant sterols and stanols (PS) consumption is known to decrease low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels by 5-15%, and thus lower CVD risk. Yet, the effect of PS on LDL-C levels differs between individuals. Furthermore, PS have recently been investigated for the prevention of other age-related diseases. The objective of this review is to examine the benefits of PS on CVD as well as ageing-associated diseases. PS have the ability to significantly lower LDL-C; yet, the large inter-individual variability in the lowering of LDL-C may be due to subject characteristics, food matrix of PS, dose of PS, dietary background, frequency of intake of PS, the additive effect of other foods or drugs, as well as genetic factors. Further, PS may also have other potential beneficial effects including anti-atherogenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-cancer activities. Overall, dietary intervention strategies, such as incorporating PS into a healthy diet, should be recommended and implemented in older adult populations in order to prevent ageing-associated diseases and hence promote healthy ageing. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Conway V.,Laval University | Couture P.,Laval University | Couture P.,Lipid Research Center | Richard C.,Laval University | And 3 more authors.
Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases

Background and aims: Sphingolipids (SL) are important components of the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) found in buttermilk. While studies in animal models suggest that dietary SL may have cholesterol-lowering properties, data in human are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of buttermilk consumption on plasma lipids and surrogate markers of cholesterol (C) homeostasis in humans. Methods and results: Men and women (n=34) with serum LDL-C <5.0mmol/L at screening (mean LDL-C=3.8mmol/L) were recruited in this double-blinded randomized crossover placebo controlled study. Their diets were supplemented with 45g/d of buttermilk and with 45g/d of a macro/micronutrient matched placebo (4 weeks each in random order). Serum lipid concentrations and surrogate markers of cholesterol homeostasis were measured post diet and compared using mixed models for repeated measures. Consumption of buttermilk led to reduction in serum cholesterol (-3.1%, P=0.019), LDL-C (-3.1%, P=0.057) and triacylglycerol (-10.7%, P=0.007). Buttermilk consumption increased plasma lathosterol concentrations (+12.1%, P=0.001), but multiple regression analysis indicated that variations in β-sitosterol concentrations (P=0.002) were the only significant predictor of the LDL-C response to buttermilk consumption. Conclusion: Buttermilk consumption may be associated with reduced cholesterol concentrations in men and women, primarily through inhibition of intestinal absorption of cholesterol. Registration number: This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01248026. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

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