Rabionet M.,Lipid Pathobiochemistry Group |
Rabionet M.,German Cancer Research Center |
Bayerle A.,Lipid Pathobiochemistry Group |
Bayerle A.,German Cancer Research Center |
And 13 more authors.
Journal of Lipid Research | Year: 2013
The lipid-rich stratum corneum functions as a barrier against pathogens and desiccation inter alia by an unbroken meshwork of extracellular lipid lamellae. These lamellae are composed of cholesterol, fatty acids, and ceramides (Cers) in an equimolar ratio. The huge class of skin Cers consists of three groups: group I, "classical" long and very long chain Cers; group II, ultra-long chain Cers; and group III, ω-esterified ultra-long chain Cers, which are esterified either with linoleic acid or with cornified envelope proteins and are required for the water permeability barrier. Here, we describe 1-O-acylceramides as a new class of epidermal Cers in humans and mice. These Cers contain, in both the N- and 1-O-position, long to very long acyl chains. They derive from the group I of classical Cers and make up 5% of all esterified Cers. Considering their chemical structure and hydrophobic-ity, we presume 1-O-acylceramides to contribute to the water barrier homeostasis. Biosynthesis of 1-O-acylceramides is not dependent on lysosomal phospholipase A2. However, gluco-sylceramide synthase deficiency was followed by a 7-fold increase of 1-O-acylceramides, which then contributed 30% to all esterified Cers. Furthermore, loss of neutral glucosylce-ramidase resulted in decreased levels of a 1-O-acylceramide subgroup. Therefore, we propose 1-O-acylceramides to be synthesized at endoplasmic reticulum-related sites. Copyright © 2013 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
PubMed | CNRS Physiology of Reproduction and Behaviors, University of Mannheim, Bruker, University of Heidelberg and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Human molecular genetics | Year: 2015
Somatic cell cytokinesis was shown to involve the insertion of sphingolipids (SLs) to midbodies prior to abscission. Spermatogenic midbodies transform into stable intercellular bridges (ICBs) connecting clonal daughter cells in a syncytium. This process requires specialized SL structures. (1) Using high resolution-mass spectrometric imaging, we show in situ a biphasic pattern of SL synthesis with testis-specific anchors. This pattern correlates with and depends on ceramide synthase 3 (CerS3) localization in both, pachytene spermatocytes until completion of meiosis and elongating spermatids. (2) Blocking the pathways to germ cell-specific ceramides (CerS3-KO) and further to glycosphingolipids (glucosylceramide synthase-KO) in mice highlights the need for special SLs for spermatid ICB stability. In contrast to somatic mitosis these SLs require ultra-long polyunsaturated anchors with unique physico-chemical properties, which can only be provided by CerS3. Loss of these anchors causes enhanced apoptosis during meiosis, formation of multinuclear giant cells and spermatogenic arrest. Hence, testis-specific SLs, which we also link to CerS3 in human testis, are quintessential for male fertility.