Christchurch, New Zealand
Christchurch, New Zealand

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Young J.M.,University of Otago | Young J.M.,Lipid and Diabetes Research Group | Pickering J.W.,University of Otago | Pickering J.W.,Christchurch Hospital | And 15 more authors.
BMC Emergency Medicine | Year: 2016

Background: Improved ability to rapidly rule-out Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) in patients presenting with chest pain will promote decongestion of the Emergency Department (ED) and reduce unnecessary hospital admissions. We assessed a new commercial Heart Fatty Acid Binding Protein (H-FABP) assay for additional diagnostic value when combined with cardiac troponin (using a high sensitivity assay). Methods: H-FABP and high-sensitivity troponins I (hs-cTnI) and T (hs-cTnT) were measured in samples taken on-presentation from patients, attending the ED, with symptoms triggering investigation for possible acute coronary syndrome. The optimal combination of H-FABP with each hs-cTn was defined as that which maximized the proportion of patients with a negative test (low-risk) whilst maintaining at least 99 % sensitivity for AMI. A negative test comprised both H-FABP and hs-cTn below the chosen threshold in the absence of ischemic changes on the ECG. Results: One thousand seventy-nine patients were recruited including 248 with AMI. H-FABP < 4.3 ng/mL plus hs-cTnI < 10.0 ng/L together with a negative ECG maintained >99 % sensitivity for AMI whilst classifying 40.9 % of patients as low-risk. The combination of H-FABP < 3.9 ng/mL and hs-cTnT < 7.6 ng/L with a negative ECG maintained the same sensitivity whilst classifying 32.1 % of patients as low risk. Conclusions: In patients requiring rule-out of AMI, the addition of H-FABP to hs-cTn at presentation (in the absence of new ischaemic ECG findings) may accelerate clinical diagnostic decision making by identifying up to 40 % of such patients as low-risk for AMI on the basis of blood tests performed on presentation. If implemented this has the potential to significantly accelerate triaging of patients for early discharge from the ED. © 2016 The Author(s).


Lever M.,Biochemistry Unit | George P.M.,Canterbury Health Laboratories | Slow S.,Biochemistry Unit | Elmslie J.L.,Biochemistry Unit | And 3 more authors.
New Zealand Medical Journal | Year: 2010

Because most of the cardiac risk remains despite successful statin therapy there has been renewed interest in fibrate therapy for persisting hyperlipidaemia. Fibrate therapy lowers triglycerides but causes the urinary loss of betaine, which is an essential metabolite that is involved in osmoregulation, in methyl group metabolism, and which also affects lipid partitioning in the body. Loss of betaine is associated with an elevation of homocysteine and may compromise the potential benefits of fibrate therapy. However, betaine deficiency could be easily and inexpensively corrected by concurrent betaine supplementation. Clinical trials of combinations of betaine and fibrate, to complement statin therapy, are needed to determine the value of these agents in reducing the residual cardiovascular disease risk. ©NZMA.


Pickering J.W.,Christchurch Hospital | Pickering J.W.,University of Otago | Young J.M.,Lipid and Diabetes Research Group | George P.,Canterbury Health Laboratories | And 15 more authors.
Clinical Biochemistry | Year: 2015

Objectives: International guidance recommends that early serial sampling of high sensitivity troponin be used to accurately identify acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in chest pain patients. The background evidence for this approach is limited. We evaluated whether on presentation and 4-hour high-sensitivity troponin I (hs-cTnI) could be used to accurately rule-out AMI. Design and methods: hs-cTnI was measured on presentation and at 4-hours in adult patients attending an emergency department with possible acute coronary syndrome. We determined the sensitivity for AMI for at least one hs-cTnI above the 99th percentile for a healthy population or alone or in combination with new ischemic ECG changes. Both overall and sex-specific 99th percentiles were assessed. Patients with negative tests were designated low-risk. Results: 63 (17.1%) of 368 patients had AMI. The median (interquartile range) time from symptom onset to first blood sampling was 4.8. h (2.8-8.6). The sensitivity of the presentation and 4. h hs-cTnI using the overall 99th percentile was 92.1% (95% CI 82.4% to 97.4%) and negative predictive value 95.4% (92.3% to 97.4%) with 78.3% low-risk. Applying the sex-specific 99th percentile did not change the sensitivity. The addition of ECG did not change the sensitivity. Conclusion: Hs-cTnI >. 99th percentile thresholds measured on presentation and at 4-hours was not a safe strategy to rule-out AMI in this clinical setting irrespective of whether sex-specific 99th percentiles were used, or whether hs-cTnI was combined with ECG results. © 2015 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists.


PubMed | University of Otago, Lipid and Diabetes Research Group, Queensland University of Technology and Christchurch Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Clinical biochemistry | Year: 2015

International guidance recommends that early serial sampling of high sensitivity troponin be used to accurately identify acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in chest pain patients. The background evidence for this approach is limited. We evaluated whether on presentation and 4-hour high-sensitivity troponin I (hs-cTnI) could be used to accurately rule-out AMI.hs-cTnI was measured on presentation and at 4-hours in adult patients attending an emergency department with possible acute coronary syndrome. We determined the sensitivity for AMI for at least one hs-cTnI above the 99th percentile for a healthy population or alone or in combination with new ischemic ECG changes. Both overall and sex-specific 99th percentiles were assessed. Patients with negative tests were designated low-risk.63 (17.1%) of 368 patients had AMI. The median (interquartile range) time from symptom onset to first blood sampling was 4.8h (2.8-8.6). The sensitivity of the presentation and 4h hs-cTnI using the overall 99th percentile was 92.1% (95% CI 82.4% to 97.4%) and negative predictive value 95.4% (92.3% to 97.4%) with 78.3% low-risk. Applying the sex-specific 99th percentile did not change the sensitivity. The addition of ECG did not change the sensitivity.Hs-cTnI >99th percentile thresholds measured on presentation and at 4-hours was not a safe strategy to rule-out AMI in this clinical setting irrespective of whether sex-specific 99th percentiles were used, or whether hs-cTnI was combined with ECG results.


Miller L.J.,University of Canterbury | Willis J.A.,Lipid and Diabetes Research Group | Pearce J.,University of Canterbury | Pearce J.,University of Edinburgh | And 3 more authors.
Health and Place | Year: 2011

Geographical variation in the incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes is well documented. Such patterns are thought to give clues to the potential causes of this complex disease. This study examined the urban-rural differences in childhood type 1 diabetes in the Canterbury region of New Zealand between 1980 and 2004. We found significantly higher incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes in satellite urban communities, which could not be explained by the ethnic composition, neighbourhood deprivation, population density or household overcrowding in these areas. Varying levels of immigration and or/commuting in different urban-rural settings could explain this finding. This study highlights the value of geographical investigations for aetiological hypothesis generation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Monro J.A.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd | Wallace A.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd | Mishra S.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd | Eady S.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd | And 3 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2010

Practical values to guide food choices for control of postprandial glycaemia need to refer to entire foods in amounts customarily consumed. We tested an in vitro method for determining the relative glycaemic impact (RGI) of customarily consumed portions of foods. Sugars released during in vitro pancreatic digestion of eighty-three foods were measured as glucose equivalents (GE) per gram of food, adjusted by the glycaemic indexes of the sugars to obtain glycaemic GE (GGE) per gram and multiplied by food portion weight to obtain the GGE contribution of the food portion, its RGI. The results were compared with clinical GGE values from subjects who consumed the same food amounts. In vitro and in vivo GGE values were significantly correlated, but the slope of the regression equation was significantly less than one, meaning in vitro GGE values overestimated in vivo GGE values. Bland-Altman method comparison showed the in vitro-in vivo disparity to increase as mean GGE increased, suggesting the need to allow for different rates of homeostatic blood glucose disposal (GD) due to different GGE doses in the customarily consumed food portions. After GD correction, Bland-Altman method comparison showed that the bias in predicting in vivo GGE values from in vitro GGE values was almost completely removed (y=0071x089; R2 001). We conclude that in vitro food values for use in managing the glycaemic impact of customarily consumed food quantities require correction for blood GD that is dependent on the GGE content of the food portions involved. © 2010 The Authors.

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