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Ma S.,Johns Hopkins International Injury Research Unit | Tran N.,World Health Organization | Klyavin V.E.,Lipetsk State Technical University | Zambon F.,World Health Organization | Hyder A.A.,Johns Hopkins International Injury Research Unit
Traffic Injury Prevention

Objective: Despite the importance of understanding seat belt use patterns among drivers and passengers for the purpose of direct interventions or monitoring improvements, no study has described wearing rates for all seat positions in Russia. This study describes observed seat belt use and knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of seat belt use in Lipetskaya Oblast, Russia. Methods: An observational study on the use of seat belts and child restraints in the Lipetskaya region conducted during October 2010 collected data in 6 districts and on 3 different road types. A roadside survey gathered information on knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions toward the use of seat belts from randomly selected drivers. Frequencies of seat belt use by seat position, gender, and road type were calculated. A multivariable logit model disclosed the associations between seat belt use and sociodemographic factors. The study design permitted comparison of observed seat belt use to self-reported seat belt use. Results: A total of 25,795 vehicles and 39,833 drivers and passengers contributed observations. Overall, 55 percent of drivers were observed to be using seat belts. More than half (58%) of front seat passengers wore seat belts and only 9 percent of back seat passengers were observed to be wearing seat belts; 11 percent of cars with children had any type of child safety measure. Drivers on urban roads were less likely to wear seat belts compared to those on main highways and rural roads. Nearly 60 percent of survey respondents mentioned "seat belts save lives," and more than half mentioned law requirements and fines. Conclusions: Although the observed seat belt use in Lipetskaya Oblast is much higher than previous estimates in Russia, overall wearing rates remain far from universal. Rear seat passengers and children are particularly at risk. Because combined education and enforcement has proven to be effective elsewhere, such interventions are needed to improve seat belt use. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Babkin A.S.,Lipetsk State Technical University | Gladkov E.A.,Moscow State Technical University
Welding Journal

This paper presents a new graphical method for determining welding parameters of qualitative welds in gas metal arc welding (GMAW). The mathematical models of quality criteria for GMAW of mild and low-alloy steels in the flat position are described. It was proposed to use the weld sizes, such as depth of penetration, bead width, and reinforcement, as quality criteria. By means of mathematical statistics, one has shown that for the given random variations of the welding parameters, the proposed mathematical models allow calculation of the weld sizes with acceptable accuracy. A technique for constructing an optimal welding parameter area was proposed. Such optimal process provides high-quality weld formation of square and double square-groove welds. Source

Schmidt A.,Lipetsk State Technical University
Materials and Manufacturing Processes

Genetic algorithm is an emerging technique used in engineering design activities to find an optimized solution which satisfy a number of design goals. Nonlinear direct method of goal search use successive linearization techniques, which are sensitive to the chosen starting solution and quality of the objective function. The proposed technique can solve programming problems having non-convex regions, which are usually avoided in classical optimization problems. The efficacy of the proposed novel method is demonstrated by solving a number of test problems. The results suggest that the proposed method is effective and represents a practical tool for solving sheet forming problems. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Blyumin S.L.,Lipetsk State Technical University
Automation and Remote Control

In the paper, we discuss a role of quantum calculus, "differential calculus without taking limits" as a discrete analog of continuous mathematical analysis oriented on information technologies. We studied distinctive calculi that are alternative to quantum calculus and relate finite discriminators of values of an argument with finite discriminators of values of a function at their different combinations. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2011. Source

Schmidt A.,Lipetsk State Technical University
Procedia Computer Science

The analysis at nano-scale is important for the modeling of plastic deformation and its structures. We reviewed algorithms at nano-scale using FEM and presented a solution for modeling of such processes and corresponding algorithms. Also, we studied dislocations and avalanches in the deformed body, how they affect the quality, and methods to decrease their affluence on the product. For meshing of the model proposed method is to relate particle size and mechanical properties, which is investigated in the context of plastic deformation. Damage models presented in the paper can be proved useful for the production modeling and manufacturing. Modeling of buckling and plastic deformation proved to be useful to study the phenomenon and can be optimized with the proposed methods. Numerical verification using test benchmarks were conducted to demonstrate flange buckling, its particle measurements, and avalanches in the deformed part to validate propositions. © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Source

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