Hamad O.A.,Uppsala University |
Nilsson P.H.,Linneaus University |
Wouters D.,University of Amsterdam |
Lambris J.D.,University of Pennsylvania |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Immunology | Year: 2010
It has been reported that complement is activated on the surface of activated platelets, despite the presence of multiple regulators of complement activation. To reinvestigate the mechanisms by which activated platelets bind to complement components, the presence of complement proteins on the surfaces of nonactivated and thrombin receptor-activating peptide-activated platelets was analyzed by flow cytometry and Western blot analyses. C1q, C4, C3, and C9 were found to bind to thrombin receptor-activating peptide-activated platelets in lepirudin-anticoagulated platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and whole blood. However, inhibiting complement activation at the C1q or C3 level did not block the binding of C3 to activated platelets. Diluting PRP and chelating divalent cations also had no effect, further indicating that the deposition of complement components was independent of complement activation. Furthermore, washed, activated platelets bound added C1q and C3 to the same extent as platelets in PRP. The use of mAbs against different forms of C3 demonstrated that the bound C3 consisted of C3(H2O). Furthermore, exogenously added soluble complement receptor 1 was shown to bind to this form of platelet-bound C3. These observations indicate that there is no complement activation on the surface of platelets under physiological conditions. This situation is in direct contrast to a number of pathological conditions in which regulators of complement activation are lacking and thrombocytopenia and thrombotic disease are the ultimate result. However, the generation of C3(H2O) represents nonproteolytic activation of C3 and after factor I cleavage may act as a ligand for receptor binding. Copyright © 2010 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
Scarpa S.,Linneaus University |
Scarpa S.,Linköping University
Urban Studies | Year: 2015
As in other Western countries, in Sweden there is a widespread conviction that residential segregation influences the opportunities for residents’ social mobility and therefore is a cause of income inequality. But the opposite direction of causality, from income inequality to residential segregation, is often ignored. The paper fills this gap and analyses income inequality and economic residential segregation developments in Malmö in the years 1991–2010. During this period, changes in population composition owing to increased immigration had a negligible impact on income inequality, while the latter was primarily influenced by changes in the distribution of labour market earnings and capital incomes. At the same time, neighbourhood income inequality was predominantly driven by overall household income inequality and only to a much lower extent by the increase in residential sorting by income. Policy influencing income distribution rather than area-based strategies should thus be at the centre of current debates on residential segregation in Sweden. © Urban Studies Journal Limited 2014.
Lundborg P.,Lund University |
Nystedt P.,Jonkoping International Business School |
Nystedt P.,Jonkoping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare |
Nystedt P.,Lund University |
And 2 more authors.
Demography | Year: 2014
We provide new evidence on the long-run labor market penalty of teenage overweight and obesity using unique and large-scale data on 150,000 male siblings from the Swedish military enlistment. Our empirical analysis provides four important results. First, we provide the first evidence of a large adult male labor market penalty for being overweight or obese as a teenager. Second, we replicate this result using data from the United States and the United Kingdom. Third, we note a strikingly strong within-family relationship between body size and cognitive skills/noncognitive skills. Fourth, a large part of the estimated body-size penalty reflects lower skill acquisition among overweight and obese teenagers. Taken together, these results reinforce the importance of policy combating early-life obesity in order to reduce healthcare expenditures as well as poverty and inequalities later in life. © 2014, Population Association of America.
Paschoal W.,Lund University |
Paschoal W.,Halmstad University |
Kumar S.,Lund University |
Borschel C.,University of Vienna |
And 6 more authors.
Nano Letters | Year: 2012
We report on temperature-dependent charge transport in heavily doped Mn +-implanted GaAs nanowires. The results clearly demonstrate that the transport is governed by temperature-dependent hopping processes, with a crossover between nearest neighbor hopping and Mott variable range hopping at about 180 K. From detailed analysis, we have extracted characteristic hopping energies and corresponding hopping lengths. At low temperatures, a strongly nonlinear conductivity is observed which reflects a modified hopping process driven by the high electric field at large bias. © 2012 American Chemical Society.
Orozovic G.,Linneaus University |
Orozovic G.,Uppsala University |
Orozovic K.,Linneaus University |
Lennerstrand J.,Uppsala University |
Olsen B.,Uppsala University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011
The neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors oseltamivir and zanamivir are the first-line of defense against potentially fatal variants of influenza A pandemic strains. However, if resistant virus strains start to arise easily or at a high frequency, a new antiinfluenza strategy will be necessary. This study aimed to investigate if and to what extent NA inhibitor-resistant mutants exist in the wild population of influenza A viruses that inhabit wild birds. NA sequences of all NA subtypes available from 5490 avian, 379 swine and 122 environmental isolates were extracted from NCBI databases. In addition, a dataset containing 230 virus isolates from mallard collected at Ottenby Bird Observatory (Ö land, Sweden) was analyzed. Isolated NA RNA fragments from Ottenby were transformed to cDNA by RT-PCR, which was followed by sequencing. The analysis of genotypic profiles for NAs from both data sets in regard to antiviral resistance mutations was performed using bioinformatics tools. All 6221 sequences were scanned for oseltamivir- (I117V, E119V, D198N, I222V, H274Y, R292K, N294S and I314V) and zanamivir-related mutations (V116A, R118K, E119G/A/D, Q136K, D151E, R152K, R224K, E276D, R292K and R371K). Of the sequences from the avian NCBI dataset, 132 (2.4%) carried at least one, or in two cases even two and three, NA inhibitor resistance mutations. Swine and environmental isolates from the same data set had 18 (4.75%) and one (0.82%) mutant, respectively, with at least one mutation. The Ottenby sequences carried at least one mutation in 15 cases (6.52%). Therefore, resistant strains were more frequently found in Ottenby samples than in NCBI data sets. However, it is still uncertain if these mutations are the result of natural variations in the viruses or if they are induced by the selective pressure of xenobiotics (e.g., oseltamivir, zanamivir). © 2011 Orozovic et al.
Svensson G.P.,Lund University |
Sahlin U.,Linneaus University |
Brage B.,County Administrative Board of Vastmanland |
Larsson M.C.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Biodiversity and Conservation | Year: 2011
To predict how organisms cope with habitat fragmentation we must understand their dispersal biology, which can be notoriously difficult. We used a novel, multi-pronged approach to study dispersal strategies in the endangered saproxylic hermit beetle Osmoderma eremita, exploiting its pheromone system to intercept high numbers of dispersing individuals, which is not possible with other methods. Mark-release-recapture, using unbaited pitfall traps inside oak hollows and pheromone-baited funnel traps suspended from tree branches, was combined with radio telemetry (in females only) to record displacements. Dispersal, modelled as a probability distribution of net displacement, did not differ significantly between sexes (males versus females recaptured), observation methods (females recaptured versus radio-tracked), or sites of first capture (pitfall trap in tree versus pheromone trap - distance from original dispersal point unknown). A model including all observed individuals yielded a mean displacement of 82 m with 1% dispersing & 1 km. Differences in body length were small between individuals captured in pitfall versus pheromone traps, indicating that dispersal is rarely a condition-dependent response in O. eremita. Individuals captured in pheromone traps were consistently lighter, indicating that most dispersal events occur relatively late in life, which agrees with trap catch data. In addition, most (79%) females captured in pheromone traps were mated, showing that females typically mate before leaving their natal tree. Our data show that integrating odour attractants into insect conservation biology provides a means to target dispersing individuals and could greatly improve our knowledge of dispersal biology in threatened species. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Nima A.A.,Gothenburg University |
Rosenberg P.,Gothenburg University |
Archer T.,Gothenburg University |
Archer T.,Linneaus University |
Garcia D.,Gothenburg University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013
Background:Mediation analysis investigates whether a variable (i.e., mediator) changes in regard to an independent variable, in turn, affecting a dependent variable. Moderation analysis, on the other hand, investigates whether the statistical interaction between independent variables predict a dependent variable. Although this difference between these two types of analysis is explicit in current literature, there is still confusion with regard to the mediating and moderating effects of different variables on depression. The purpose of this study was to assess the mediating and moderating effects of anxiety, stress, positive affect, and negative affect on depression.Methods:Two hundred and two university students (males = 93, females = 113) completed questionnaires assessing anxiety, stress, self-esteem, positive and negative affect, and depression. Mediation and moderation analyses were conducted using techniques based on standard multiple regression and hierarchical regression analyses.Main Findings:The results indicated that (i) anxiety partially mediated the effects of both stress and self-esteem upon depression, (ii) that stress partially mediated the effects of anxiety and positive affect upon depression, (iii) that stress completely mediated the effects of self-esteem on depression, and (iv) that there was a significant interaction between stress and negative affect, and between positive affect and negative affect upon depression.Conclusion:The study highlights different research questions that can be investigated depending on whether researchers decide to use the same variables as mediators and/or moderators. © 2013 Nima et al.
Holmfeldt K.,Linneaus University |
Holmfeldt K.,University of Arizona |
Odic D.,Linneaus University |
Sullivan M.B.,University of Arizona |
And 3 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2012
This is the first description of cultivated icosahedral single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) phages isolated on heterotrophic marine bacterioplankton and with Bacteroidetes hosts. None of the 8 phages stained well with DNA-binding stains, suggesting that in situ abundances of ssDNA phages are drastically underestimated using conventional methods for enumeration. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology.
Garcia D.,Gothenburg University |
Nima A.A.,Gothenburg University |
Archer T.,Gothenburg University |
Archer T.,Linneaus University
Journal of Adolescence | Year: 2013
The present study investigated the relationship between personality and Subjective Well-Being in a sample of 135 Salvadorian adolescents and young adults (age mean=21.88 sd.=4.70). Personality was assessed through self-reports using the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised. Subjective Well-Being was also self-reported using the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule and the Satisfaction With Life Scale. Structural equation modeling was used to determine relationships between personality and Subjective Well-Being. Regarding temperament dimensions, Harm Avoidance was positively associated to negative affect and negatively associated to positive affect, while Persistence was positively associated to positive affect. Regarding character dimensions, only Self-directedness was related to Subjective Well-Being: positively related to life satisfaction and positive affect. The results presented here mirror findings using the temperament and character model of personality among European and North American adolescents. © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents.
Lubbe N.,Linneaus University |
Sahlin U.,Linneaus University
Applied Energy | Year: 2012
The climate impact of new cars in Sweden 2009 has been evaluated by the Swedish Transport Administration. Their report takes into account reduction factors to attribute the positive impact of renewable fuels on CO2 emissions. The Swedish Transport Administration recommends the public to buy cars that can run on biofuels. Besides acknowledging prevailing uncertainties for many of the input parameters to the index of new cars' climate impact, reduction factors are based on calculations from point estimates of input parameters. A probabilistic re-assessment of the index is presented to find out the importance of these uncertainties and to assess whether the point estimated recommendation might be misguiding. Probabilistic reduction factors for CO2 emissions were derived with the same deterministic model proposed by the Swedish Transport Administration, were Bayesian probability distributions or intervals assigned by expert judgements were used to describe uncertainty in the model input parameters. The use of biofuels most likely reduces CO2 emissions. Probabilistic modelling indicated a CO2 reduction for E85 as a fuel of 30% (95% credibility interval=10-52%) in the same order as the 20% given by the Swedish Transport Administration. The best estimate of 28% decrease for gas cars (95% credibility interval=3-44%) and is lower than the originally proposed reduction of 42%, but still within a similar range. The difference is due to the large extent of optimistic values used in the assessment by the Swedish Transport Administration. The CO2 emissions from the production of the biofuel had most influence on the model results. We conclude that the recommendation of the Swedish Transport Administration to consumers is still valid after probabilistic recalculation. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.