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Kalmar, Sweden

Paschoal W.,Lund University | Paschoal W.,Halmstad University | Kumar S.,Lund University | Borschel C.,University of Vienna | And 6 more authors.
Nano Letters | Year: 2012

We report on temperature-dependent charge transport in heavily doped Mn +-implanted GaAs nanowires. The results clearly demonstrate that the transport is governed by temperature-dependent hopping processes, with a crossover between nearest neighbor hopping and Mott variable range hopping at about 180 K. From detailed analysis, we have extracted characteristic hopping energies and corresponding hopping lengths. At low temperatures, a strongly nonlinear conductivity is observed which reflects a modified hopping process driven by the high electric field at large bias. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source


Svensson G.P.,Lund University | Sahlin U.,Linneaus University | Brage B.,County Administrative Board of Vastmanland | Larsson M.C.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Biodiversity and Conservation | Year: 2011

To predict how organisms cope with habitat fragmentation we must understand their dispersal biology, which can be notoriously difficult. We used a novel, multi-pronged approach to study dispersal strategies in the endangered saproxylic hermit beetle Osmoderma eremita, exploiting its pheromone system to intercept high numbers of dispersing individuals, which is not possible with other methods. Mark-release-recapture, using unbaited pitfall traps inside oak hollows and pheromone-baited funnel traps suspended from tree branches, was combined with radio telemetry (in females only) to record displacements. Dispersal, modelled as a probability distribution of net displacement, did not differ significantly between sexes (males versus females recaptured), observation methods (females recaptured versus radio-tracked), or sites of first capture (pitfall trap in tree versus pheromone trap - distance from original dispersal point unknown). A model including all observed individuals yielded a mean displacement of 82 m with 1% dispersing & 1 km. Differences in body length were small between individuals captured in pitfall versus pheromone traps, indicating that dispersal is rarely a condition-dependent response in O. eremita. Individuals captured in pheromone traps were consistently lighter, indicating that most dispersal events occur relatively late in life, which agrees with trap catch data. In addition, most (79%) females captured in pheromone traps were mated, showing that females typically mate before leaving their natal tree. Our data show that integrating odour attractants into insect conservation biology provides a means to target dispersing individuals and could greatly improve our knowledge of dispersal biology in threatened species. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Nima A.A.,Gothenburg University | Rosenberg P.,Gothenburg University | Archer T.,Gothenburg University | Archer T.,Linneaus University | Garcia D.,Gothenburg University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background:Mediation analysis investigates whether a variable (i.e., mediator) changes in regard to an independent variable, in turn, affecting a dependent variable. Moderation analysis, on the other hand, investigates whether the statistical interaction between independent variables predict a dependent variable. Although this difference between these two types of analysis is explicit in current literature, there is still confusion with regard to the mediating and moderating effects of different variables on depression. The purpose of this study was to assess the mediating and moderating effects of anxiety, stress, positive affect, and negative affect on depression.Methods:Two hundred and two university students (males = 93, females = 113) completed questionnaires assessing anxiety, stress, self-esteem, positive and negative affect, and depression. Mediation and moderation analyses were conducted using techniques based on standard multiple regression and hierarchical regression analyses.Main Findings:The results indicated that (i) anxiety partially mediated the effects of both stress and self-esteem upon depression, (ii) that stress partially mediated the effects of anxiety and positive affect upon depression, (iii) that stress completely mediated the effects of self-esteem on depression, and (iv) that there was a significant interaction between stress and negative affect, and between positive affect and negative affect upon depression.Conclusion:The study highlights different research questions that can be investigated depending on whether researchers decide to use the same variables as mediators and/or moderators. © 2013 Nima et al. Source


Scarpa S.,Linneaus University | Scarpa S.,Linkoping University
Urban Studies | Year: 2015

As in other Western countries, in Sweden there is a widespread conviction that residential segregation influences the opportunities for residents’ social mobility and therefore is a cause of income inequality. But the opposite direction of causality, from income inequality to residential segregation, is often ignored. The paper fills this gap and analyses income inequality and economic residential segregation developments in Malmö in the years 1991–2010. During this period, changes in population composition owing to increased immigration had a negligible impact on income inequality, while the latter was primarily influenced by changes in the distribution of labour market earnings and capital incomes. At the same time, neighbourhood income inequality was predominantly driven by overall household income inequality and only to a much lower extent by the increase in residential sorting by income. Policy influencing income distribution rather than area-based strategies should thus be at the centre of current debates on residential segregation in Sweden. © Urban Studies Journal Limited 2014. Source


Lundborg P.,Lund University | Nystedt P.,Jonkoping International Business School | Nystedt P.,Jonkoping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare | Nystedt P.,Lund University | And 2 more authors.
Demography | Year: 2014

We provide new evidence on the long-run labor market penalty of teenage overweight and obesity using unique and large-scale data on 150,000 male siblings from the Swedish military enlistment. Our empirical analysis provides four important results. First, we provide the first evidence of a large adult male labor market penalty for being overweight or obese as a teenager. Second, we replicate this result using data from the United States and the United Kingdom. Third, we note a strikingly strong within-family relationship between body size and cognitive skills/noncognitive skills. Fourth, a large part of the estimated body-size penalty reflects lower skill acquisition among overweight and obese teenagers. Taken together, these results reinforce the importance of policy combating early-life obesity in order to reduce healthcare expenditures as well as poverty and inequalities later in life. © 2014, Population Association of America. Source

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