Kalmar, Sweden
Kalmar, Sweden

Linnaeus University is a state university in the Småland region of Sweden. It has two campuses, one in Växjö and one in Kalmar. Linnaeus University was established in 2010 by a merger of former Växjö University and Kalmar University , and has been named in honour of botanist Carl Linnaeus. Wikipedia.


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Much research has been devoted to identify the conditions under which selection favours flexible individuals or genotypes that are able to modify their growth, development and behaviour in response to environmental cues, to unravel the mechanisms of plasticity and to explore its influence on patterns of diversity among individuals, populations and species. The consequences of developmental plasticity and phenotypic flexibility for the performance and ecological success of populations and species have attracted a comparatively limited but currently growing interest. Here, I re-emphasize that an increased understanding of the roles of plasticity in these contexts requires a 'whole organism' (rather than 'single trait') approach, taking into consideration that organisms are integrated complex phenotypes. I further argue that plasticity and genetic polymorphism should be analysed and discussed within a common framework. I summarize predictions from theory on how phenotypic variation stemming from developmental plasticity and phenotypic flexibility may affect different aspects of population-level performance. I argue that it is important to distinguish between effects associated with greater interindividual phenotypic variation resulting from plasticity, and effects mediated by variation among individuals in the capacity to express plasticity and flexibility as such. Finally, I claim that rigorous testing of predictions requires methods that allow for quantifying and comparing whole organism plasticity, as well as the ability to experimentally manipulate the level of and capacity for developmental plasticity and phenotypic flexibility independent of genetic variation. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited.


Proteins interact with ions in various ways. The surface of proteins has an innate capability to bind ions, and it is also influenced by the screening of the electrostatic potential owing to the presence of salts in the bulk solution. Alkali metal ions and chlorides interact with the protein surface, but such interactions are relatively weak and often transient. In this paper, computer simulations and analysis of protein structures are used to characterize the interactions between ions and the protein surface. The results show that the ion-binding properties of protein residues are highly variable. For example, alkali metal ions are more often associated with aspartate residues than with glutamates, whereas chlorides are most likely to be located near arginines. When comparing NaCl and KCl solutions, it was found that certain surface residues attract the anion more strongly in NaCl. This study demonstrates that protein-salt interactions should be accounted for in the planning and execution of experiments and simulations involving proteins, particularly if subtle structural details are sought after. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Mansson A.,Linnaeus University
Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility | Year: 2012

This review describes the development towards actomyosin based nanodevices taking a starting point in pioneering studies in the 1990s based on conventional in vitro motility assays. References are given to parallel developments using the kinesin-microtubule motor system. The early developments focused on achieving cargotransportation using actin filaments as cargo-loaded shuttles propelled by surface-adsorbed heavy meromyosin along micro- and nanofabricated channels. These efforts prompted extensive studies of surface-motor interactions contributing with new insights of general relevance in surface and colloid chemistry. As a result of these early efforts, a range of complex devices have now emerged, spanning applications in medical diagnostics, biocomputation and formation of complex nanostructures by selforganization. In addition to giving a comprehensive account of the developments towards real-world applications an important goal of the present review is to demonstrate important connections between the applied studies and fundamental biophysical studies of actomyosin and muscle function. Thus the manipulation of the motor proteins towards applications has resulted in new insights into methodological aspects of the in vitro motiliy assay. Other developments have advanced the understanding of the dynamic materials properties of actin filaments. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012.


Friedman R.,Linnaeus University
Dalton Transactions | Year: 2014

Cadmium is a highly toxic group XII metal, similar to zinc and mercury. Unlike zinc, which is one of the most common metal cofactors in biology, cadmium is highly toxic. Many Zn2+-binding proteins can bind Cd 2+-ions without significantly affecting their structures. Here, the protein data bank is analysed with regard to protein-cadmium interactions, which shows that cadmium can bind to a variety of ion binding sites in proteins. Statistical analysis of Cd2+-side chain interactions is compared with a similar analysis of other ions. This analysis reveals that with regard to amino acid side-chain preference, Cd2+ is more similar to Mn 2+ than to Zn2+ or Hg2+. Finally, the interaction energies of three native metal binding proteins are calculated where Cd2+ binds instead of Zn2+, Ca2+ or Cu 2+. The interaction energies are decomposed into individual components whose contributions are discussed. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Gossling S.,Linnaeus University
Tourism Management | Year: 2015

Tourism is increasingly recognized as a significant water-consuming sector on local, regional and global scales. As a consequence, the efficient use of water resources is now considered a key sustainability challenge for the tourism industry. To date, most research has focused on direct (on site) water consumption, with tourism water management based almost exclusively on direct water use benchmarks. This paper argues that such an approach overlooks the complexity of 'local' and 'global' water use, with local water use affecting sustainable water use in the destination and global water use representing the sustainability of water embodied in goods produced elsewhere, including fuels and food. Focussing on tourism accommodation as the locus of tourism water consumption, conventional water indicators are reviewed and discussed, and knowledge gaps identified. New data accounting for food consumption are then presented for a case study of resort hotels in Rhodes, Greece. The results are used to develop a novel set of performance indicators suitable for resort hotels and other accommodation, considering water availability, planning and operation, as well as complexities of direct vis-à-vis indirect water consumption. The findings suggest a significant potential for water and related cost savings, indicating that holistic water management should be an operational imperative. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Mansson A.,Linnaeus University
Biophysical Journal | Year: 2010

Despite intense efforts to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that determine the maximum shortening velocity and the shape of the force-velocity relationship in striated muscle, our understanding of these mechanisms remains incomplete. Here, this issue is addressed by means of a four-state cross-bridge model with significant explanatory power for both shortening and lengthening contractions. Exploration of the parameter space of the model suggests that an actomyosin-ADP state (AM*ADP) that is separated from the actual ADP release step by a strain-dependent isomerization is Important for determining both the maximum shortening velocity and the shape of the force-velocity relationship. The model requires a velocity-dependent, cross-bridge attachment rate to account for certain experimental findings. Of interest, the velocity dependence for shortening contraction is similar to that for population of the AM*ADP state (with a velocity-independent attachment rate). This accords with the idea that attached myosin heads in the AM*ADP state position the partner heads for rapid attachment to the next site along actin, corresponding to the apparent increase in attachment rate in the model. © 2010 by the Biophysical Society.


Friedman R.,Linnaeus University
Biochemical Journal | Year: 2011

Amyloid-related diseases are a group of illnesses in which an abnormal accumulation of proteins into fibrillar structures is evident. Results from a wide range of studies, ranging from identification of amyloid-β dimers in the brain to biophysical characterization of the interactions between amyloidogenic peptides and lipid membranes during fibril growth shed light on the initial events which take place during amyloid aggregation. Accounts of fibril disaggregation and formation of globular aggregates due to interactions with lipids or fatty acids further demonstrate the complexity of the aggregation process and the difficulty to treat amyloid-related diseases. There is an inherent difficulty in generalizing from studies of aggregation in vitro, but the involvement of too many cellular components limits the ability to follow amyloid aggregation in a cellular (or extracellular) context. Fortunately, the development of experimental methods to generate stable globular aggregates suggests new means of studying the molecular events associated with amyloid aggregation. Furthermore, simulation studies enable deeper understanding of the experimental results and provide useful predictions that can be tested in the laboratory. Computer simulations can nowadays provide molecular or even atomistic details that are experimentally not available or very difficult to obtain. In the present review, recent developments on modelling and experiments of amyloid aggregation are reviewed, and an integrative account on how isolated interactions (as observed in vitro and in silico) combine during the course of amyloidrelated diseases is presented. Finally, it is argued that an integrative approach is necessary to get a better understanding of the protein aggregation process. ©The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 Biochemical Society.


Khrennikov A.,Linnaeus University
Progress of Theoretical Physics | Year: 2012

We present a purely wave model (based on classical random field) which reproduces quantum probabilities (given by the fundamental law of quantum mechanics, Born's rule) including probabilities for joint detection of a pair of quantum observables (e.g., spin or polarization projections). The crucial point of our approach is that the presence of detector's threshold and calibration procedure have to be treated not as simply experimental technicalities, but as the basic counterparts of the theoretical model. The presence of the background field (vacuum fluctuations) is also the key-element of our prequantum model. It is of the classical signal type and the methods of classical signal theory (including statistical radiophysics) are used for its development. We stress that our prequantum model is not objective, i.e., the values of observables (clicks of detectors) cannot be assigned in advance, i.e., before measurement. Hence, the dilemma, nonobjectivity or nonlocality, is resolved in favor of nonobjectivity (our model is local of the classical field type). In particular, we reproduce the probabilities for the EPR-experiment for photon polarization and, hence, violate CHSH inequality for classical random signals (measured by the threshold type and properly calibrated detectors acting in the presence of the background field). Copyright © Progress of Theoretical Physics 2010 All rights reserved.


Khrennikov A.,Linnaeus University
Annals of Physics | Year: 2012

The experiment on coincidence detection which was done by Grangier in 1986 [18] played a crucial role in rejection of (semi-)classical field models in favour of quantum mechanics (QM). QM predicts that the relative probability of coincidence detection, the degree of second order coherence, g (2)(0) is zero (for one photon states), but in (semi-)classical models g (2)(0)≥1. We present a purely wave model (based on classical random field) which reproduces quantum probabilities given by the fundamental law of quantum mechanics (Born's rule). The crucial point of our approach is that the presence of a detector's threshold has to be treated not as simply an experimental technicality, but as the basic counterpart of the theoretical model. We call this approach the threshold signal detection model (TSD). In TSD, the degree of second order coherence g (2)(0) decreases as 1/Ed2, where Ed is the detection threshold. Hence, by increasing this threshold an experimenter can make g (2)(0) essentially less than 1. The TSD-prediction can be tested experimentally in new Grangier type experiments presenting a detailed monitoring of dependence of the degree of second order coherence g (2)(0) on the detection threshold. © 2012 Elsevier Inc..


Wennersten L.,Linnaeus University | Forsman A.,Linnaeus University
Biological Reviews | Year: 2012

The consequences of among-individual phenotypic variation for the performance and ecological success of populations and species has attracted growing interest in recent years. Earlier reviews of this field typically address the consequences for population processes of one specific source of variation (plasticity or polymorphism), or consider one specific aspect of population performance, such as rate of speciation. Here we take a broader approach and study earlier reviews in order to summarize and compare predictions regarding several population-level consequences of phenotypic variation stemming from genetic polymorphism, developmental plasticity or randomized phenotype switching. Unravelling cause-dependent consequences of variation may increase our ability to understand the ecological dynamics of natural populations and communities, develop more informed management plans for protection of biodiversity, suggest possible routes to increased productivity and yield in natural and managed biological systems, and resolve inconsistencies in patterns and results seen in studies of different model systems. We find an overall agreement regarding the effects of higher levels of phenotypic variation generated by different sources, but also some differences between fine-grained and coarse-grained environments, modular and unitary organisms, mobile and sessile organisms, and between flexible and fixed traits. We propose ways to test the predictions and identify issues where current knowledge is limited and future lines of investigation promise to provide important novel insights. © 2012 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2012 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

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