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Linköping, Sweden

Al-Aubaidi Z.T.J.,University of Southern Denmark | Tropp H.,Linkoping hospital | Pedersen N.W.,University of Southern Denmark | Jespersen S.M.,University of Southern Denmark
Scoliosis | Year: 2013

Background: Skeletally immature patients diagnosed with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and a Cobb angle above 25degrees is usually treated with a brace. Standard protocols in many centers include hospitalisation for a few days for the purpose of brace adaptation and fitting. The aim of this study is to compare compliance and satisfaction in hospitalization and out patient clinic protocols, at the initiation phase of brace treatment.Materials and methods: Twenty-four consecutive patients with AIS were initiated with the Providence night time only brace at our department between October 2008 and September 2009. The first twelve patients were admitted for a maximum of 3 days during the initiation phase of brace treatment. The following twelve patients were initiated in an outpatient clinic set-up. In this later group, patients and parents were informed about the possibility to be admitted to the hospital, at the initiation phase but all patients chose to be treated as out patient's protocol. All patients were evaluated by means of conventional x-ray and patients reported outcome measurements. The mean follow up was 6 months for the outpatient group (3-8) and 12 months for the hospitalisation group (9-14). Scoliosis Quality of Life Index (SQLI) was used together with the Odense Scoliosis questionnaire, which was developed for this study. Compliance was measured using the patients' own statements and the Landauer compliance scoring system.Findings/results: The two groups' matches regarding the age, Risser grad, Cobb angle and primary correction. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups regarding the SQLI and the Odense Scoliosis questionnaire. The compliance was higher in the ambulatory group.Conclusion: Outpatient initiation of bracing in scoliosis seems to give the same correction but better compliance compared to initiation during hospitalization. © 2013 Al-Aubaidi et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Kallberg H.,Karolinska Institutet | Ding B.,Karolinska Institutet | Padyukov L.,Karolinska Institutet | Bengtsson C.,Karolinska Institutet | And 25 more authors.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2011

Background: Earlier studies have demonstrated that smoking and genetic risk factors interact in providing an increased risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Less is known on how smoking contributes to RA in the context of genetic variability, and what proportion of RA may be caused by smoking. Objectives: To determine the association between the amount of smoking and risk of RA in the context of different HLA-DRB1 shared epitope (SE) alleles, and to estimate proportions of RA cases attributed to smoking. Design, Setting and Participants: Data from the Swedish Epidemiological Investigation of Rheumatoid Arthritis (EIRA) case-control study encompassing 1204 cases and 871 controls were analysed. Main Outcome Measure: Estimated OR to develop RA and excess fraction of cases attributable to smoking according to the amount of smoking and genotype. Results: Smoking was estimated to be responsible for 35% of anticitrullinated protein/peptide antibody (ACPA)-positive cases. For each HLA-DRB1 SE genotype, smoking was dose-dependently associated with an increased risk of ACPA-positive RA (p trend <0.001). In individuals carrying two copies of the HLA-DRB1 SE, 55% of ACPA-positive RA was attributable to smoking. Conclusions: Smoking is a preventable risk factor for RA. The increased risk due to smoking is dependent on the amount of smoking and genotype. Source

Stolt P.,Karolinska Institutet | Yahya A.,Karolinska Institutet | Yahya A.,Institute for Medical Research | Bengtsson C.,Karolinska Institutet | And 24 more authors.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2010

Objective: To study the association between silica exposure, separately as well as combined with smoking, and the risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with or without the presence of antibodies against citrullinated peptide antigens (ACPA). Methods: This Swedish population based case-control study analysed 577 incident RA cases and 659 randomly selected controls, all men aged 18-70 years, included during May 1996 to May 2006. Self-reported silica exposure, defined as exposure to stone dust, rock drilling or stone crushing and cigarette smoking was registered. ACPA status among cases was analysed. Results: Silica-exposed subjects were found to have a moderately increased risk of ACPA-positive RA (odds ratio (OR) adjusted for age and residency=1.67 (95% CI 1.13 to 2.48), but not of ACPA-negative RA (OR=0.98 (95% CI 0.57 to 1.66)), compared with subjects unexposed to silica. Subjects exposed to rock drilling were found to have a somewhat more markedly increased risk of ACPA-positive RA (OR=2.34 (95% CI 1.17 to 4.68)). A high risk of developing ACPA-positive RA was observed among silica-exposed current smokers (OR=7.36 (95% CI 3.31 to 16.38)), exceeding the risk expected from the separate effects of silica exposure and current smoking, indicating an interaction between these exposures (attributable proportion due to interaction=0.60 (95% CI 0.26 to 0.95)). Conclusion: Silica exposure combined with smoking among men is associated with an increased risk of developing ACPA-positive RA. These results suggest that different inhalation exposures may interact in the aetiology of ACPA-positive RA. Source

Bengtsson C.,Karolinska Institutet | Kapetanovic M.C.,Lund University | Kallberg H.,Karolinska Institutet | Sverdrup B.,Karolinska Institutet | And 21 more authors.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2010

Objective: To investigate the association between vaccinations in adults and the risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: Data from the Swedish population-based Epidemiological Investigation of RA case-control study encompassing 1998 incident cases of RA aged 18-70 years and 2252 randomly selected controls matched for age, sex and residency were analysed. Those vaccinated within 5 years before disease onset were compared with those not vaccinated by calculating OR with 95% CI. Results: Vaccinations neither increased the risk of RA overall (OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.9 to 1.1) nor the risk of two major subgroups of RA (antibodies to citrullinated peptide-positive (ACPA-positive) and ACPA-negative disease). Furthermore, vaccinations did not increase the risk of RA in smokers or carriers of HLA-DRB1 shared epitope alleles, two groups with established risk factors for RA. Conclusions: In this case-control study of incident cases of newly diagnosed RA, no increased risk of RA following immunisation was observed for vaccinations overall or for any specific vaccination. This indicates that immunological provocation of adults with commonly used vaccines in their present form carries no risk of RA. These findings should be implemented among public healthcare providers in order to encourage vaccinations according to recommended national vaccination schedules. Source

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