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Cairo, Egypt

Swahn M.H.,Georgia State University | Gressard L.,Georgia State University | Palmier J.B.,Georgia State University | Kasirye R.,LINK Development | And 2 more authors.
Western Journal of Emergency Medicine | Year: 2012

Introduction: Violence among youth is a major public health issue globally. Despite these concerns, youth violence surveillance and prevention research are either scarce or non-existent, particularly in developing regions, such as sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of this study is to quantitatively determine the prevalence of violence involving weapons in a convenience sample of service-seeking youth in Kampala. Moreover, the study will seek to determine the overlap between violence victimization and perpetration among these youth and the potentially shared risk factors for these experiences. Methods: We conducted this study of youth in May and June of 2011 to quantify and describe high-risk behaviors and exposures in a convenience sample (N=457) of urban youth, 14-24 years of age, living on the streets or in the slums and who were participating in a Uganda Youth Development Link drop-in center for disadvantaged street youth. We computed bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to determine associations between psychosocial factors and violence victimization and perpetration. Results: The overall prevalence of reporting violence victimization involving a weapon was 36%, and violence perpetration with a weapon was 19%. In terms of the overlap between victimization and perpetration, 16.6% of youth (11.6% of boys and 24.1% of girls) reported both. In multivariate analyses, parental neglect due to alcohol use (Adj.OR=2.28;95%CI: 1.12-4.62) and sadness (Adj.OR=4.36 ;95%CI: 1.81-10.53) were the statistically significant correlates of victimization only. Reporting hunger (Adj.OR=2.87 ;95%CI:1.30-6.33), any drunkenness (Adj.OR=2.35 ;95%CI:1.12-4.92) and any drug use (Adj.OR=3.02 ;95%CI:1.16-7.82) were significantly associated with both perpetration and victimization. Conclusion: The findings underscore the differential experiences associated with victimization and perpetration of violence involving weapons among these vulnerable youth. In particular, reporting hunger, drunkenness and drug use were specifically associated with victimization and perpetration. These are all modifiable risk factors that can be prevented. It is clear that these vulnerable youth are in need of additional services and guidance to ameliorate their adverse childhood experiences, current health risk behaviors and disadvantaged living context. Source


Swahn M.H.,Georgia State University | Braunstein S.,Georgia State University | Kasirye R.,LINK Development
Western Journal of Emergency Medicine | Year: 2014

Introduction: The use of mobile phones and other technology for improving health through research and practice is growing quickly, in particular in areas with difficult-to-reach population or where the research infrastructure is less developed. In Sub-Saharan Africa, there appears to be a dramatic increase in mobile phone ownership and new initiatives that capitalize on this technology to support health promotion campaigns to change behavior and to increase health literacy. However, the extent to which difficult-to-reach youth in the slums of Kampala may own and use mobile phones has not been reported despite the burden of injuries, substance use, and HIV that they face. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of mobile phone ownership and use in this high-risk population and to identify psychosocial characteristics that may differentiate those owning and using a phone from those who do not. Methods: We conducted secondary analyses of the Kampala Youth Survey (N=457). Data collection took place in 2011, and the survey was designed to quantify high-risk behaviors in a convenience sample of urban youth living on the streets or in the slums, 14-24 years of age, who were participating in a Uganda Youth Development Link drop-in center for disadvantaged street youth. We computed chisquare analyses to determine any significant differences in psychosocial characteristics based on phone ownership and use. Results: Overall, 46.9% of youth reported owning a mobile phone and ownership did not vary by sex but was more common among youth older than 18 years of age. Mobile phone ownership was also more common among those who reported taking care of themselves at night, who reported current drug use and who reported trading sex for money, food or other things. Conclusion: Given that nearly half of the youth own and use phones daily, new research is needed to determine next steps for mobile health (mhealth),including the feasibility of using mobile phones for data collection and interventions with this hard-to-reach population. Moreover, this technology may also be suitable for injury-specific research given that there were few differences with respect to injury-related variables in mobile phone ownership and usage. Copyright 2014 by the article author(s). Source


Hamdan H.A.,Power Unit Thermal Generation | Khoury R.,LINK Development
International Conference on the European Energy Market, EEM | Year: 2015

This paper investigates the viability of an LNG import infrastructure and a coastal pipeline interconnecting most of the countries' power plants. The analysis is performed in light of the pending offshore gas discoveries and the world's falling oil prices. The methodology used in this research is based on a probabilistic approach through the development of an integrated energy-economics appraisal-model that uses a probabilistic Fuel Demand Module (FDM) which is derived from a traditional production-costing approach. The developed energy model is interrelated to an investment feasibility model used to assess the financial feasibility of the terminal. This two-folded paper provides a proposal to concatenate an FDM to the traditional probabilistic production-costing model, which is an effective tool for the financial appraisal of a typical fuel infrastructure. The other fold is the technical and commercial aspects that are considered advantageous to the country's policy makers. © 2015 IEEE. Source


Swahn M.H.,Georgia State University | Palmier J.B.,Georgia State University | Kasirye R.,LINK Development | Yao H.,Georgia State University
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2012

While suicidal behavior is recognized as a growing public health problem world-wide, little is known about the prevalence and risk factors for suicidal behaviors among street and slum youth in Africa, and in Uganda, specifically. The number of youth who live on the streets and in the slums of Kampala appears to be growing rapidly, but their mental health needs have not been documented, which has hampered resource allocation and service implementation. This study of youth, ages 14-24, was conducted in May and June of 2011, to assess the prevalence and correlates of suicidal behavior. Participants (N = 457) were recruited for a 30-minute interviewer-administered survey through eight drop-in centers operated by the Uganda Youth Development Link for youth in need of services. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were computed to determine associations between psychosocial correlates and suicide ideation and suicide attempt. Reporting both parents deceased Adj.OR = 2.36; 95% CI: 1.23-4.52), parental neglect due to alcohol use (Adj.OR = 2.09; 95% CI: 1.16-3.77), trading sex for food, shelter or money (Adj.OR = 1.95; 95% CI: 1.09-3.51), sadnesss (Adj.OR = 2.42; 95% CI: 1.20-4.89), loneliness (Adj.OR = 2.67; 95% CI: 1.12-6.40) and expectations of dying prior to age 30 (Adj.OR = 2.54; 95% CI: 1.53-4.23) were significantly associated with suicide ideation in multivariate analyses. Parental neglect due to alcohol use (Adj.OR = 2.04; 95% CI: 1.11-3.76), sadness (Adj.OR = 2.42; 95% CI: 1.30-7.87), and expectations of dying prior to age 30 (Adj.OR = 2.18; 95% CI: 1.25-3.79) were significantly associated with suicide attempt in multivariate analyses. Given the dire circumstances of this vulnerable population, increased services and primary prevention efforts to address the risk factors for suicidal behavior are urgently needed. © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source


The time has come that Sub-Saharan Africa benefit from implementation of Evidence-Based Interventions (EBIs) that have been developed over time in the United States, Europe, and by the United Nations (UN) agencies. This paper has been written partly because less information is coming out of Africa regarding diffusion and implementation of EBIs. There is a need to highlight and reflect on the delivery of interventions of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and substance use(r) programs in Sub-Saharan Africa. Both the evidence and practices may help enrich discussions as a way to improve the quality of program outcome in the region and at the same time retire inappropriate old interventions "Prevention can work, but not everything called prevention works" Belinda E. Sims (2011). © 2015 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

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