Time filter

Source Type

Sun City Center, United States

Ribisl K.M.,Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center
Nicotine and Tobacco Research | Year: 2012

This paper is part of a collection that identifies research priorities that will help guide the efforts of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as it regulates tobacco products. This paper examines the major provisions related to tobacco product advertising, marketing, sales, and distribution included in Public Law 111-31, the "Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act". This paper covers 5 areas related to (a) marketing regulations (e.g., ban on color and imagery in ads, ban on nontobacco gifts with purchase); (b) granting FDA authority over the sale, distribution, accessibility, advertising, and promotion of tobacco and lifting state preemption over advertising; © remote tobacco sales (mail order and Internet); (d) prevention of illicit and cross-border trade; and (e) noncompliant export products. Each of the 5 sections of this paper provides a description and brief history of regulation, what is known about this regulatory strategy, and research opportunities. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. Source

In countries undergoing nutrition transition and historically poor minority groups in wealthy countries, obesity tends to be more common in women than men. A potential contributor to this female excess of obesity is a mismatch between perinatal nutritional restriction and a later calorie-rich environment. Several epidemiologic and quasi-experimental studies support a gender-differential effect of early nutritional deprivation on adult obesity. The quasi-experimental studies are of particular interest because results of quasi-experimental studies are typically less vulnerable to confounding bias than observational studies. Four quasi-experimental studies-exploiting 20th century famines that occurred in Europe, Africa, and Asia-provide evidence that perinatal nutritional restriction followed by relative caloric abundance may increase adult obesity risk to a greater extent in women than men. If the findings are accurate and generalizable to contemporary food environments, they suggest that the female offspring of poor, or otherwise nutritionally restricted, women in rapidly developing and wealthy countries may be at particularly high risk of adult obesity. Research into gender-specific effects of early life nutritional deprivation and its interactions with later environmental exposures may provide insight into global gender differences in obesity prevalence. © 2012 The Obesity Society. Source

Dudley A.C.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Dudley A.C.,Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center | Dudley A.C.,McAllister Heart Institute
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine | Year: 2012

The vascular endothelium is a dynamic cellular "organ" that controls passage of nutrients into tissues, maintains the flow of blood, and regulates the trafficking of leukocytes. In tumors, factors such as hypoxia and chronic growth factor stimulation result in endothelial dysfunction. For example, tumor blood vessels have irregular diameters; they are fragile, leaky, and blood flow is abnormal. There is now good evidence that these abnormalities in the tumor endothelium contribute to tumor growth and metastasis. Thus, determining the biological basis underlying these abnormalities is critical for understanding the pathophysiology of tumor progression and facilitating the design and delivery of effective antiangiogenic therapies. © 2012 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved. Source

Wang G.G.,Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center | Konze K.D.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Tao J.,H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute
Blood | Year: 2015

Posttranslational modifications of histone proteins represent a fundamental means to define distinctive epigenetic states and regulate gene expression during development and differentiation. Aberrations in various chromatin-modulation pathways are commonly used by tumors to initiate and maintain oncogenesis, including lymphomagenesis. Recently, increasing evidence has demonstrated that polycomb group (PcG) proteins, a subset of histone-modifying enzymes known to be crucial for B-cell maturation and differentiation, play a central role in malignant transformation of B cells. PcG hyperactivity in B-cell lymphomas is caused by over expression or recurrent mutations of PcG genes and deregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) or transcription factors such as c-MYC, which regulate PcG expression. Interplays of PcG and miRNA deregulations often establish a vicious signal-amplification loop in lymphoma associated with adverse clinical outcomes. Importantly, aberrantenzymatic activities associated with polycomb deregulation, notably those caused by EZH2 gain-of-function mutations, have provided a rationale for developing small-molecule inhibitorsasnovel therapies. In this review, we summarize our current understanding ofPcG-mediated genesilencing, interplays of PcG with other epigenetic regulators such as miRNAs during B-cell differentiation and lymphomagenesis, and recent advancements in targeted strategies against PcG as promising therapeutics for B-cell malignancies. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology. Source

Funakoshi T.,Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center | Suzuki M.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Tamura K.,Fukuoka University
Cancer Treatment Reviews | Year: 2014

Background: Clinical trials have reported a substantial variation in the risk of infection related to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) cetuximab and panitumumab. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the infection risk in cancer patients treated with anti-EGFR mAbs. Patients and methods: We searched PubMed and the ASCO online database of meeting abstracts up to January 2014 for relevant clinical trials. Eligible studies included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of cetuximab and panitumumab that reported adequate safety data for grade 3-4 infection or febrile neutropenia (FN). The summary incidence, relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Results: A total of 14,957 patients from 28 trials were included. Treatment with anti-EGFR mAbs was associated with an increased risk of high-grade infection (RR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.33-1.66; P<. 0.001) and FN (RR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.09-1.48; P= 0.002). The incidence of high-grade infection and FN due to anti-EGFR mAbs was 9.3% (95% CI, 7.2-12.0%) and 5.3% (95% CI, 3.3-8.3%), respectively. A significantly increased risk of high-grade infection was observed in all subgroups analyses (type of anti-EGFR mAb, therapy of control arm and duration of treatment) except for tumor type (only colorectal cancer and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) groups had the increased risk). Subgroup analyses revealed a significantly increased risk of FN in the following subgroups: cetuximab, NSCLC and treatment duration longer than the median of all trials (3.1. months). Conclusions: The use of anti-EGFR mAbs is associated with a significantly higher risk of high-grade infection and febrile neutropenia. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Discover hidden collaborations