Lindsay Wildlife Museum

Walnut Creek, CA, United States

Lindsay Wildlife Museum

Walnut Creek, CA, United States
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Godoy L.A.,University of California at Davis | Dalbeck L.S.,University of California at Davis | Tell L.A.,University of California at Davis | Woods L.W.,California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Wildlife Diseases | Year: 2013

Avian poxvirus (genus Avipoxvirus, family Poxviridae) is an enveloped double-stranded DNA virus that may be transmitted to birds by arthropod vectors or mucosal membrane contact with infectious particles. We characterized the infection in Anna's Hummingbird (Calypte anna; n=5 birds, n=9 lesions) by conducting diagnostic tests on skin lesions that were visually similar to avian poxvirus lesions in other bird species. Skin lesions were single or multiple, dry and firm, pink to yellow, with scabs on the surface, and located at the base of the bill, wings, or legs. Microscopically, the lesions were characterized by epidermal hyperplasia and necrosis with ballooning degeneration, and intracytoplasmic inclusions (Bollinger bodies) in keratinocytes. The 4b core gene sequence of avian poxvirus was detected by PCR in samples prepared from lesions. Nucleotide sequences were 75-94% similar to the sequences of other published avian poxvirus sequences. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the Anna's Hummingbird poxvirus sequence was distinguished as a unique subclade showing similarities with sequences isolated from Ostrich (Struthio camelus), Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), falcons (Falco spp.), Black-browed Albatross (Diomedea melanophris), Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) and White-tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla). To our knowledge this is the first published report of definitive laboratory diagnosis of avian poxvirus in a hummingbird. Our results advance the science of disease ecology in hummingbirds, providing management information for banders, wildlife rehabilitators, and avian biologists. © Wildlife Disease Association 2013.

Anderson N.L.,Lindsay Wildlife Museum | Johnson C.K.,University of California at Davis | Fender S.,Lindsay Wildlife Museum | Heckly S.,Lindsay Wildlife Museum | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2010

This paper describes the clinical signs and histopathologic findings associated with an emergent disease associated with Trichomonas gallinae infections in free-ranging house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) in California. Wet mounts were necessary to detect T. gallinae infections in house finches because classical clinical presentation, such as caseous stomatitis or ingluvitis, occurred in <25 of cases. Early detection was instrumental in preventing trichomonosis outbreaks in a high-density nursery (P < 0.0001). Detection before onset of clinical signs was critical. Despite treatment, ∼95 of house finches died within 24 hr of displaying signs of illness. In contrast, 58 of T. gallinaepositive house finches housed in a nursery survived if they received treatment before onset of clinical signs. Recurrent protozoal shedding in survivors was not evident. © 2010 American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.

Ley D.H.,North Carolina State University | Moresco A.,Lindsay Wildlife Museum | Frasca Jr. S.,University of Connecticut
Avian Pathology | Year: 2012

Fledgling cliff swallows were cared for at a rehabilitation facility when clinical signs of ocular disease, characterized by conjunctivitis, epiphora, and hyperaemia of palpebrae and nictitans, were recognized. Treatment consisted of topical and oral antibiotic therapy and one topical steroid administration. However, one cliff swallow died and three were killed due to poor therapeutic response. Conjunctival swabs were obtained ante-mortem from the three cliff swallows and were submitted for mycoplasma culture and molecular diagnostics. Heads of the three birds were fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin and submitted for histopathologic examination of oculonasal tissues. Mycoplasma cultures and molecular evaluation of isolates identified Mycoplasma sturni, but not Mycoplasma gallisepticum, from each specimen. Histopathologic examination revealed lymphoplasmacytic conjunctivitis, rhinitis and infraorbital sinusitis with follicular lymphoid hyperplasia, epithelial hyperplasia, and protozoal stages compatible with Cryptosporidium spp. arranged in and along the apical surfaces of epithelial cells. Identification of concurrent M. sturni and Cryptosporidium spp. infections in these cliff swallows demonstrates an alternative infectious condition that can produce gross and microscopic lesions comparable with those commonly observed in M. gallisepticum infections of house finches and other passerine species. Conjunctivitis associated with M. sturni and Cryptosporidium spp. in cliff swallows may represent an emerging disease risk to a naïve, high-density and colonial species such as colony-nesting cliff swallows. © 2012 Copyright Houghton Trust Ltd.

Ley D.H.,North Carolina State University | Anderson N.,Lindsay Wildlife Museum | Dhondt K.V.,Cornell University | Dhondt A.A.,Cornell University
Journal of Wildlife Diseases | Year: 2010

Mycoplasma gallisepticum conjunctivitis emerged in 1994 as a disease of free-ranging House Finches (Carpodacus mexicanas) in North America and has also been isolated from other songbirds with conjunctivitis. A key feature for the successful study of natural and experimental disease has been the apparent, very-high correlation between characteristic eye lesions and M. gallisepticum. Mycoplasma sturni was originally isolated from an adult European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris) with bilateral conjunctivitis and has since been reported in a relatively small number of other avian species, but not in House Finches. We identified as M. sturni a mycoplasma isolate from a California House Finch with conjunctivitis. However, experimental infection of House Finches with the M. sturni isolate failed to reproduce the disease. Therefore, M. gallisepticum remains the primary known cause of conjunctivitis in House Finches. © Wildlife Disease Association 2010.

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