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Walnut Creek, CA, United States

Godoy L.A.,University of California at Davis | Dalbeck L.S.,University of California at Davis | Tell L.A.,University of California at Davis | Woods L.W.,California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Wildlife Diseases | Year: 2013

Avian poxvirus (genus Avipoxvirus, family Poxviridae) is an enveloped double-stranded DNA virus that may be transmitted to birds by arthropod vectors or mucosal membrane contact with infectious particles. We characterized the infection in Anna's Hummingbird (Calypte anna; n=5 birds, n=9 lesions) by conducting diagnostic tests on skin lesions that were visually similar to avian poxvirus lesions in other bird species. Skin lesions were single or multiple, dry and firm, pink to yellow, with scabs on the surface, and located at the base of the bill, wings, or legs. Microscopically, the lesions were characterized by epidermal hyperplasia and necrosis with ballooning degeneration, and intracytoplasmic inclusions (Bollinger bodies) in keratinocytes. The 4b core gene sequence of avian poxvirus was detected by PCR in samples prepared from lesions. Nucleotide sequences were 75-94% similar to the sequences of other published avian poxvirus sequences. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the Anna's Hummingbird poxvirus sequence was distinguished as a unique subclade showing similarities with sequences isolated from Ostrich (Struthio camelus), Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), falcons (Falco spp.), Black-browed Albatross (Diomedea melanophris), Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) and White-tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla). To our knowledge this is the first published report of definitive laboratory diagnosis of avian poxvirus in a hummingbird. Our results advance the science of disease ecology in hummingbirds, providing management information for banders, wildlife rehabilitators, and avian biologists. © Wildlife Disease Association 2013. Source


Anderson N.L.,Lindsay Wildlife Museum | Johnson C.K.,University of California at Davis | Fender S.,Lindsay Wildlife Museum | Heckly S.,Lindsay Wildlife Museum | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2010

This paper describes the clinical signs and histopathologic findings associated with an emergent disease associated with Trichomonas gallinae infections in free-ranging house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) in California. Wet mounts were necessary to detect T. gallinae infections in house finches because classical clinical presentation, such as caseous stomatitis or ingluvitis, occurred in <25 of cases. Early detection was instrumental in preventing trichomonosis outbreaks in a high-density nursery (P < 0.0001). Detection before onset of clinical signs was critical. Despite treatment, ∼95 of house finches died within 24 hr of displaying signs of illness. In contrast, 58 of T. gallinaepositive house finches housed in a nursery survived if they received treatment before onset of clinical signs. Recurrent protozoal shedding in survivors was not evident. © 2010 American Association of Zoo Veterinarians. Source

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