Tulsa, OK, United States
Tulsa, OK, United States

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Hudgins D.,Business & Decision | Na J.,Linde Process Plants Inc.
Computational Economics | Year: 2016

This analysis explores robust designs for an applied macroeconomic discrete-time LQ tracking model with perfect state measurements. We develop a procedure that reframes the tracking problem as a regulator problem that is then used to simulate the deterministic, stochastic LQG, H-infinity, multiple-parameter minimax, and mixed stochastic/H-infinity control, for quarterly fiscal policy. We compare the results of the five different design structures within a closed-economy accelerator model using data for the United States for the period 1947–2012. When the consumption and investment tracking errors are more heavily emphasized, the H-infinity design renders the most aggressive fiscal policy, followed by the multiple-parameter minimax, mixed, LQG, and deterministic versions. When the control tracking errors are heavily weighted, the resulting fiscal policy is initially more aggressive under the multi-parameter specification than under the H-infinity and mixed designs. The results from both weighting schemes show that fiscal policy remains more aggressive under the robust designs than the deterministic model. The simulations show that the multi-parameter minimax and mixed designs provide a balancing compromise between the stochastic and robust methods when the worst-case concerns can be primarily limited to a subset of the state-space. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Key R.,Linde Process Plants Inc. | Bruentrup M.,Linde Group | Schwarz M.,Linde Group
IGT International Liquefied Natural Gas Conference Proceedings | Year: 2013

Driven by growing global natural gas reserves, favourable gas prices and stricter emission regulations LNG is beginning to substitute traditional oil-based fuels in marine or heavy vehicle engines, power generation and process industries. This emerging "Merchant LNG" market calls for decentralized small-to-mid scale LNG plants and is now growing beyond a niche market, attracting new players. The idea of StarLNG™ is to standardize and optimize a small-to-mid scale LNG plant based on a wide set of process variations. This "Process Toolbox" is designed to cover about 90% of real-life boundary conditions, with the following major benefits: • Safety as for World Scale LNG • Fast-track EPC time schedule • Reduction of Capex • Highly efficient process, easy to operate • Modularized units for pre-treatment, process and main pipe racks • Toolbox concept with many options StarLNG™ delivers a generic LNG plant design for a 200 tpd (net liquefaction capacity) base case and many alternatives, with pre-engineered documents including a 3D CAD-model for a fully modularized plant -combining superb safety, reliability, ease of operations and efficiency with competitive prices and shortest execution schedule.

Kohler T.,Linde Group | Bruentrup M.,Linde Group | Key R.D.,Linde Process Plants Inc. | Edvardsson T.,Linde Process Plants Inc.
Hydrocarbon Processing | Year: 2014

A frequent question is which refrigeration technology is the best for small-scale LNG production. Here, a broad range of aspects and guidelines for which technology is best suited for what type of application is covered. © 2013 Hydrocarbon Processing.

Rauchegger C.,Linde Process Plants Inc. | Bayley S.,Linde Process Plants Inc. | Schroder V.,BAM Federal Institute of Materials Research and Testing | Thevenin D.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg
49th Annual Loss Prevention Symposium 2015, LPS 2015 - Topical Conference at the 2015 AIChE Spring Meeting and 11th Global Congress on Process Safety | Year: 2015

In the presented study, the release process of heavy gases from standard gas bottles was investigated. A mathematical model has been developed to predict the mass flow for various release scenarios. This model takes into account the time-dependent temperature distribution of the bottle wall, a detailed description of the energy and mass balances as well as the possible occurrence of a two-phase flow. In order to validate the mathematical model a series of experimental investigations have been carried out. Comparisons between the experimental results and numerical predictions will be discussed. The model predictions and the experimental data show systematically good agreement. In particular, the occurrence and the duration of the two-phase flow could be accurately reproduced by the model. Special attention has been devoted to the maximum mass flow, because this mass flow has the largest impact on the subsequent gas dispersion. In addition to the experiments with the refrigerant R134a and CO2, theoretical calculations of the mass flow of chlorine were conducted. After having developed and validated such an accurate prediction tool for the time-dependent mass flow for any gas and any gas bottle geometry, it will become possible in a further step to analyze the near-field gas dispersion.

Rauchegger C.,Linde Process Plants Inc | Bayley S.,Linde Process Plants Inc | Schroder V.,BAM Federal Institute of Materials Research and Testing | Thevenin D.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg
Process Safety Progress | Year: 2015

The hazardous potential of accidental heavy gas releases, especially those involving flammable and toxic gases, is widely known. In order to predict the area in which these gases are in hazardous concentrations, an estimation of the dispersion of these gases must be carried out. While the hazardous area for flammable heavy gases is determined by the lower flammability limit (ca. >1 vol%), the release of toxic heavy gases can result in a much larger hazardous area. Toxic gases, even in very low concentrations (ca. <3,000 ppm), have the potential to be highly damaging. State-of-the-art dispersion models, such as the VDI Guideline 3783, can be used to estimate the dispersion of heavy gases. However, VDI 3783 gives no method for the prediction of the height and width of a heavy gas cloud, which are both required for quantitative risk analysis as well as for a possible coupling of a Lagrangian particle model with the VDI 3783 heavy gas dispersion model. Therefore, further calculation methods were used to describe these dimensions and were evaluated against experimental studies of the length, width, and height of the heavy and neutral gas field. In addition to that the influence of the source height on the heavy gas dispersion was also examined. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

Clark R.,ONEOK | Soerries J.,ONEOK | Marty A.,Linde Process Plants Inc. | Kucinskas D.,Linde Process Plants Inc.
Proceedings, Annual Convention - Gas Processors Association | Year: 2014

Processing of shale gas has brought technical, commercial and logistical challenges as companies move to capture market opportunities in newly developing areas. Maximizing recovery rates in natural gas with high liquid content is a challenge to current liquid recovery technologies and provides a risk to maximizing market opportunity with shale gas. Careful planning and innovative execution is necessary to achieve the full benefit of gas processing technologies and limited infrastructure. ONEOK and Linde have partnered to address the technical, logistic and business challenges in the Bakken formation of western North Dakota. Projects implemented in the Bakken formation process shale gas with liquid contents greater than 10 GPM. Liquid recovery using a dual cryogenic column approach has provided the flexibility with rich shale gas to operate at high recovery levels for both ethane and propane recovery. Execution of the projects required detailed planning and logistics to overcome the challenges associated with the remote North Dakota setting: harsh winters, underdeveloped infrastructure, constrained manpower and resources. ONEOK and Linde have successfully implemented liquid recovery technology and innovative execution strategies to provide solutions to the challenges in the Bakken shale play.

Treite P.,Linde Group | Nuesslein U.,Linde Group | Jia Y.,Linde Process Plants Inc. | Klebaner A.,Linde Group | Theilacker J.,Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory
Physics Procedia | Year: 2015

The Fermilab Cryomodule Test Facility (CMTF) provides a test bed to measure the performance of superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cryomodules (CM). These SRF components form the basic building blocks of future high intensity accelerators such as the International Linear Collider (ILC) and a Muon Collider. Linde Kryotechnik AG and Linde Cryogenics have designed, constructed and commissioned the superfluid helium refrigerator needed to support SRF component testing at the CMTF Facility. The hybrid refrigerator is designed to operate in a variety of modes and under a wide range of boundary conditions down to 1.8 Kelvin set by CM design. Special features of the refrigerator include the use of warm and cold compression and high efficiency turbo expanders.This paper gives an overview on the wide range of the challenging cooling requirements, the design, fabrication and the commissioning of the installed cryogenic system. © 2015 The Authors.

The invention relates to an integrated process and apparatus for liquefaction of natural gas and recovery of natural gas liquids. In particular, the improved process and apparatus reduces the energy consumption of a Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) unit by using a portion of the already cooled overhead vapor from a fractionation column from an NGL (natural gas liquefaction) unit to, depending upon composition, provide, for example, reflux for fractionation in the NGL unit and/or a cold feed for the LNG unit, or by cooling, within the NGL unit, a residue gas originating from a fractionation column of the NGL unit and using the resultant cooled residue gas to, depending upon composition, provide, for example, reflux/feed for fractionation in the NGL and/or a cold feed for the LNG unit, thereby reducing the energy consumption of the LNG unit and rendering the process more energy-efficient.

Linde Process Plants Inc. | Date: 2010-03-05

Heat exchangers.

Clark R.,ONEOK | Soerries J.,ONEOK | Marty A.,Linde Process Plants Inc | Kucinskas D.,Linde Process Plants Inc
GPA Annual Convention Proceedings | Year: 2014

ONEOK and Linde formed a partnership to address the technical, logistic, and business challenges in the Bakken formation of western North Dakota. Projects execution required detailed planning and logistics to overcome the challenges associated with the remote North Dakota setting, e.g., harsh winters, underdeveloped infrastructure, constrained manpower and resources. A discussion covers the challenges in liquid recovery technologies; challenges in project execution; technology solutions for the high liquid content of the Bakken Shale gas; and the Linde CRYO-PLUS™ technology, which allowed maximizing propane recovery levels while minimizing ethane recovery to meet product specifications. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 93rd Annual Convention of the Gas Processors Association 2014 (Dallas, TX 4/13-16/2014).

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