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Goodin D.S.,University of California at San Francisco | Ebers G.C.,University of Oxford | Cook S.D.,UMD New Jersey Medical School | O'Donnell T.,Lincoln University at Lincoln Park | And 7 more authors.
BMJ Open | Year: 2012

Objectives: Compared with controls, multiple sclerosis (MS) patients die, on average, 7-14 years prematurely. Previously, we reported that, 21 years after their participation in the pivotal randomised, controlled trial (RCT) of interferon β-1b, mortality was reduced by 46-47% in the two groups who received active therapy during the RCT. To determine whether the excessive deaths observed in placebo-treated patients was due to MS-related causes, we analysed the causes-of-death (CODs) in these three, randomised, patient cohorts. Design: Long-term follow-up (LTF) of the pivotal RCT of interferon β-1b. Setting: Eleven North American MS-centres participated. Participants: In the original RCT, 372 patients participated, of whom 366 (98.4%) were identified after a median of 21.1 years from RCT enrolment. Interventions: Using multiple information sources, we attempted to establish COD and its relationship to MS in deceased patients. Primary outcome: An independent adjudication committee, masked to treatment assignment and using prespecified criteria, determined the likely CODs and their MS relationships. Results: Among the 366 MS patients included in this LTF study, 81 deaths were recorded. Mean age-at-death was 51.7 (±8.7) years. COD, MS relationship, or both were determined for 88% of deaths (71/81). Patients were assigned to one of nine COD categories: cardiovascular disease/stroke; cancer; pulmonary infections; sepsis; accidents; suicide; death due to MS; other known CODs; and unknown COD. Of the 69 patients for whom information on the relationship of death to MS was available, 78.3% (54/69) were adjudicated to be MS related. Patients randomised to receive placebo during the RCT (compared with patients receiving active treatment) experienced an excessive number of MS-related deaths. Conclusions: In this long-term, randomised, cohort study, MS patients receiving placebo during the RCT experienced greater all-cause mortality compared to those on active treatment. The excessive mortality in the original placebo group was largely from MS-related causes, especially, MS-related pulmonary infections.


PubMed | Lancaster University, Macquarie University, CNRS Center of Evolutionary and Functional Ecology and Lincoln University at Lincoln Park
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Ecology and evolution | Year: 2014

All birds construct nests in which to lay eggs and/or raise offspring. Traditionally, it was thought that natural selection and the requirement to minimize the risk of predation determined the design of completed nests. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that sexual selection also influences nest design. This is an important development as while species such as bowerbirds build structures that are extended phenotypic signals whose sole purpose is to attract a mate, nests contain eggs and/or offspring, thereby suggesting a direct trade-off between the conflicting requirements of natural and sexual selection. Nest design also varies adaptively in order to both minimize the detrimental effects of parasites and to create a suitable microclimate for parents and developing offspring in relation to predictable variation in environmental conditions. Our understanding of the design and function of birds nests has increased considerably in recent years, and the evidence suggests that nests have four nonmutually exclusive functions. Consequently, we conclude that the design of birds nests is far more sophisticated than previously realized and that nests are multifunctional structures that have important fitness consequences for the builder/s.


Zeljkovi V.,New York Institute of Technology | Bojic M.,University of Belgrade | Zhao S.,New York Institute of Technology | Tameze C.,Lincoln University at Lincoln Park | Valev V.,University of North Florida
Concurrency Computation | Year: 2015

Diabetic retinopathy is the progressive pathological alterations in the retinal microvasculature that very often causes blindness. Because of its clinical significance, it will be helpful to have regular cost-effective eye screening for diabetic patients by developing algorithms to perform retinal image analysis, fundus image enhancement, and monitoring. The two cost-effective algorithms are proposed for exudates detection and optic disk extraction aimed for retinal images classification and diagnosis assistance. They represent the effort made to offer a cost-effective algorithm for optic disk identification, which will enable easier exudates extraction, exudates detection and retinal images classification aimed to assist ophthalmologists while making diagnoses. The proposed algorithms apply mathematical modeling, which enables light intensity levels emphasis, easier optic disk and exudates detection, efficient and correct classification of retinal images. The algorithm is robust to various appearance changes of retinal fundus images and shows very promising results. Fundus images are classified into those that are healthy and those affected by diabetes, based on the detected optic disk and exudates. The obtained results indicate that the proposed algorithm successfully and correctly classifies more than 98% of the observed retinal images because of the changes in the appearance of retinal fundus images typically encountered in clinical environments. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


PubMed | Center for Ecology &Hydrology, University of Aarhus, The Landing, British Trust for Ornithology and 13 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nature | Year: 2016

Differences in phenological responses to climate change among species can desynchronise ecological interactions and thereby threaten ecosystem function. To assess these threats, we must quantify the relative impact of climate change on species at different trophic levels. Here, we apply a Climate Sensitivity Profile approach to 10,003 terrestrial and aquatic phenological data sets, spatially matched to temperature and precipitation data, to quantify variation in climate sensitivity. The direction, magnitude and timing of climate sensitivity varied markedly among organisms within taxonomic and trophic groups. Despite this variability, we detected systematic variation in the direction and magnitude of phenological climate sensitivity. Secondary consumers showed consistently lower climate sensitivity than other groups. We used mid-century climate change projections to estimate that the timing of phenological events could change more for primary consumers than for species in other trophic levels (6.2 versus 2.5-2.9 days earlier on average), with substantial taxonomic variation (1.1-14.8 days earlier on average).


Sataloff R.T.,Drexel University | Hawkshaw M.J.,Drexel University | Johnson J.L.,Drexel University | Ruel B.,Vanderbilt Voice Center | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Voice | Year: 2012

Objective: To determine the prevalence of abnormal laryngeal findings during strobovideolaryngoscopy and objective voice measurement in healthy singers without significant voice complaints. Study Design: Prospective evaluation of professional singing teachers. Setting: A quiet room in a hotel during a convention of the National Association of Teachers of Singing. Subjects: Seventy-two volunteers (60 females and 12 males), all of whom were trained singers without significant voice complaints. Main Outcome Measure: Abnormalities observed on strobovideolaryngoscopy. Secondary Outcome Measure: Abnormalities identified during acoustic analysis. Results: Abnormalities were found during strobovideolaryngoscopy in 86.1% (62 of 72 of subjects, many of whom had more than one abnormality. For the purpose of this study, the authors defined "normal" as having no structural pathology (masses, cysts, ectasias, and so on) and a reflux finding score (RFS) of less than 7. Subjects' evaluations were considered "abnormal" if they had at least one documented laryngeal pathology and/or an RFS ≥ 7. The most common findings were signs associated with laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR). Subjects were also identified with prominent varicosities or ectasias, incomplete glottic closure, and structural abnormalities. LPR was observed in 72% of patients using the physical findings (arytenoid erythema and/or edema) relied on typically to establish the clinical diagnosis as well as using the RFS (16.7% in women and 25% in men). Posterior laryngeal mucosal hypertrophy was also demonstrated in 64% of the participants. Acoustic analysis of female subjects showed that shimmer, relative average perturbation, and maximum fundamental frequency differed significantly from widely used norms. Conclusion: Laryngeal abnormalities occur commonly in asymptomatic patients. Physicians must exercise caution in establishing a causal relationship between an observed abnormality and a patient's voice complaint. Baseline examinations of voice patients when they are healthy and asymptomatic should be encouraged to establish each individual's "normal" condition. © 2012 The Voice Foundation.


Modesto J.L.,Penn State Cancer Institute | Modesto J.L.,Pennsylvania State University | Hull A.,Lincoln University at Lincoln Park | Angstadt A.Y.,Penn State Cancer Institute | And 7 more authors.
Molecular Carcinogenesis | Year: 2015

The tobacco-specific nitrosamine NNK is a potent carcinogen found in tobacco smoke and implicated in the development of lung cancer. The major route of NNK metabolism is carbonyl reduction by AKR1C1, AKR1C2, CBR1, and 11β-HSD1 to form NNAL. This study investigated the potential role of variants in this pathway on lung cancer risk by examining 53 tag-SNPs representing the common variations in AKR1C1, AKR1C2, CBR1, and HSD11B1 in 456 lung cancer cases and 807 controls. One SNP in CBR1 (rs2835267) was significantly associated with overall risk of lung cancer, but did not pass multiple testing adjustment (OR: 0.76 95% CI: 0.58-0.99, P=0.048, FDR P=0.20). After stratification and multiple testing correction, three SNPs showed significance. One SNP (rs2835267) in CBR1 showed a significant decreased risk for smokers with a high pack-years (OR: 0.3595% CI: 0.17-0.69, P=0.018) and in SCC (OR: 0.4895% CI: 0.29-0.76, P=0.018). Another SNP located in CBR1 (rs3787728) also showed a significant decreased risk in SCC (OR: 0.4695% CI: 0.26-0.80, P=0.024) and small cell carcinoma (only in current smokers) (OR: 0.06895% CI: 0.01-0.42, P=0.028). The HSD11B1 SNP (rs4844880) showed a significant increased risk for adenocarcinoma within former smokers (OR: 3.9495% CI: 1.68-9.22, P=0.011). Haplotype analysis found significance with six haplotypes and lung cancer risk. These findings indicate that select variants in genes in the carbonyl reduction pathway of NNK may alter the risk of lung cancer. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Mayorga P.,Mexicali Institute of Technology | Ibarra D.,Mexicali Institute of Technology | Zeljkovic V.,Lincoln University at Lincoln Park | Druzgalski C.,California State University, Long Beach
Proceedings of the 2015 International Conference on High Performance Computing and Simulation, HPCS 2015 | Year: 2015

This paper presents integrated Hidden Markov and Gaussian Mixture Models (HMM-GMM) to classify lung sounds (LS) and heart sounds (HS) characteristics. In order to optimize the models' size, several methodologies encompassing dendrograms, silhouettes and the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) were applied. The experiments were carried out extracting features from the LS and HS with MFCC (Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients) vectors and Quantile vectors, specifically Quartiles. The merged HMM-GMM architecture for the signals using Quartiles, overall offered consistent classification results. In both types of vectors, a high degree of classification efficiency was obtained reaching up to 96% for the studied sets of signals. For MFCC the classification results were not conclusive. An assessment of the number of clusters using dendrograms, silhouettes, and BIC linked with the models' size. Consequently this allows to enhance efficiency of merged HMM-GMM models in diagnostic classification of cardiopulmonary acoustic signals. © 2015 IEEE.


Hochhauser A.M.,R. Gad 11 1 | Schleyer C.H.,Lincoln University at Lincoln Park
Energy and Fuels | Year: 2014

The paper summarizes research on the use of intermediate ethanol blends in the U. S. vehicle fleet. Intermediate ethanol blends, fuels with ethanol content above 10%, are just being introduced in the U. S. for use in conventional vehicles. Thirty published studies are covered including the extensive program conducted by the Coordinating Research Council. The individual studies are grouped by vehicle performance aspect: driveability, exhaust emissions, evaporative emissions, flexible-fuel vehicles, onboard diagnostics, and durability of engine, fuel, and emissions control systems. Within each performance aspect, data are examined for common trends and potential fuel impacts. In some cases, results from similar programs are combined and analyzed. A variety of ethanol impacts on vehicle performance and emissions are identified and described. Emphasis is placed on impact areas or potential failure modes that have been identified and tested. Differences in vehicle responses to increasing ethanol content are identified. Some of the studies concluded that intermediate ethanol blends have similar performance to gasoline or low level ethanol blends in a number of areas including short-term driveability and emissions and exhaust catalyst and evaporative control system durability in the post-2001 vehicles tested. However, there are areas where research has identified potential adverse impacts from intermediate ethanol blends including false illumination of Malfunction Indicator Lights and reduced engine and fuel system durability. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Che-Castaldo J.P.,Lincoln University at Lincoln Park | Neel M.C.,University of Maryland University College
Conservation Biology | Year: 2016

Recovery planning for species listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act has been hampered by a lack of consistency and transparency, which can be improved by implementing a standardized approach for evaluating species status and developing measurable recovery criteria. However, managers lack an assessment method that integrates threat abatement and can be used when demographic data are limited. To help meet these needs, we demonstrated an approach for evaluating species status based on habitat configuration data. We applied 3 established persistence measures (patch occupancy, metapopulation capacity, and proportion of population lost) to compare 2 conservation strategies (critical habitat designated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Forest Service's Carbonate Habitat Management Strategy) and 2 threat scenarios (maximum limestone mining, removal of all habitat in areas with mining claims; minimum mining, removal of habitat only in areas with existing operations and high-quality ore) against a baseline of existing habitat for 3 federally listed plant species. Protecting all area within the designated critical habitat maintained a similar level (83.9-99.9%) of species persistence as the baseline, whereas maximum mining greatly reduced persistence (0.51-38.4% maintained). The 3 persistence measures provided complementary insights reflecting different aspects of habitat availability (total area, number of patches, patch size, and connectivity). These measures can be used to link recovery criteria developed following the 3 R principles (representation, redundancy, and resilience) to the resulting improvements in species viability. By focusing on amount and distribution of habitat, our method provides a means of assessing the status of data-poor species to inform decision making under the Endangered Species Act. © 2016, Society for Conservation Biology.


News Article | November 14, 2016
Site: www.prnewswire.com

LINCOLN PARK, N.J., Nov. 14, 2016 /PRNewswire/ -- Lincoln Park Bancorp (OTC Bulletin Board: LPBC) (the "Company"), the holding company of Lincoln 1st Bank, announced net income of $316,000 or $0.19 per share, for the quarter ended September 30, 2016, compared to net income of $217,000, or...

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