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Lincoln Park, PA, United States

Fowler L.P.,Georgia State University | Awan S.N.,Bloomsburg University | Awan S.N.,Lincoln University at Lincoln Park | Gorham-Rowan M.,Valdosta State University | Morris R.,Florida State University
Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology | Year: 2011

Objectives: We observed whether 30 minutes of neuromuscular electrical stimulation applied to the necks of healthy speakers would result in significant acoustic changes and perceptions of fatigue and/or delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Methods: Twelve participants were assigned to experimental (n = 6; 3 male and 3 female) and control groups (n = 6; 3 male and 3 female). Neuromuscular electrical stimulation was applied to the anterior neck in the experimental group only. All participants produced 3 trials of the vowel /a/ and the Rainbow Passage before and after completing a 30-minute phonation protocol. Recorded samples were analyzed for measures of the cepstral peak prominence, the ratio of low- to high-frequency spectral energy, and their respective standard deviations. Perceptions of fatigue and DOMS were rated on visual analog scales before, 5 minutes after, and 24 hours after completion of the phonation protocol. Results: Statistically significant acoustic findings reflecting reduced relative sound pressure level, increased high-frequency noise, and phonatory instability were observed in the experimental group. In addition, reports of fatigue and DOMS were also reported by some participants. Conclusions: A 30-minute dosage may be too high for some people experiencing neuromuscular electrical stimulation for the first time. © 2011 Annals Publishing Company. All rights reserved. Source


Schleyer C.H.,Lincoln University at Lincoln Park
Energy and Fuels | Year: 2014

The paper summarizes research on the use of intermediate ethanol blends in the U. S. vehicle fleet. Intermediate ethanol blends, fuels with ethanol content above 10%, are just being introduced in the U. S. for use in conventional vehicles. Thirty published studies are covered including the extensive program conducted by the Coordinating Research Council. The individual studies are grouped by vehicle performance aspect: driveability, exhaust emissions, evaporative emissions, flexible-fuel vehicles, onboard diagnostics, and durability of engine, fuel, and emissions control systems. Within each performance aspect, data are examined for common trends and potential fuel impacts. In some cases, results from similar programs are combined and analyzed. A variety of ethanol impacts on vehicle performance and emissions are identified and described. Emphasis is placed on impact areas or potential failure modes that have been identified and tested. Differences in vehicle responses to increasing ethanol content are identified. Some of the studies concluded that intermediate ethanol blends have similar performance to gasoline or low level ethanol blends in a number of areas including short-term driveability and emissions and exhaust catalyst and evaporative control system durability in the post-2001 vehicles tested. However, there are areas where research has identified potential adverse impacts from intermediate ethanol blends including false illumination of Malfunction Indicator Lights and reduced engine and fuel system durability. © 2014 American Chemical Society. Source


Goodin D.S.,University of California at San Francisco | Ebers G.C.,University of Oxford | Cook S.D.,The New School | O'Donnell T.,Lincoln University at Lincoln Park | And 7 more authors.
BMJ Open | Year: 2012

Objectives: Compared with controls, multiple sclerosis (MS) patients die, on average, 7-14 years prematurely. Previously, we reported that, 21 years after their participation in the pivotal randomised, controlled trial (RCT) of interferon β-1b, mortality was reduced by 46-47% in the two groups who received active therapy during the RCT. To determine whether the excessive deaths observed in placebo-treated patients was due to MS-related causes, we analysed the causes-of-death (CODs) in these three, randomised, patient cohorts. Design: Long-term follow-up (LTF) of the pivotal RCT of interferon β-1b. Setting: Eleven North American MS-centres participated. Participants: In the original RCT, 372 patients participated, of whom 366 (98.4%) were identified after a median of 21.1 years from RCT enrolment. Interventions: Using multiple information sources, we attempted to establish COD and its relationship to MS in deceased patients. Primary outcome: An independent adjudication committee, masked to treatment assignment and using prespecified criteria, determined the likely CODs and their MS relationships. Results: Among the 366 MS patients included in this LTF study, 81 deaths were recorded. Mean age-at-death was 51.7 (±8.7) years. COD, MS relationship, or both were determined for 88% of deaths (71/81). Patients were assigned to one of nine COD categories: cardiovascular disease/stroke; cancer; pulmonary infections; sepsis; accidents; suicide; death due to MS; other known CODs; and unknown COD. Of the 69 patients for whom information on the relationship of death to MS was available, 78.3% (54/69) were adjudicated to be MS related. Patients randomised to receive placebo during the RCT (compared with patients receiving active treatment) experienced an excessive number of MS-related deaths. Conclusions: In this long-term, randomised, cohort study, MS patients receiving placebo during the RCT experienced greater all-cause mortality compared to those on active treatment. The excessive mortality in the original placebo group was largely from MS-related causes, especially, MS-related pulmonary infections. Source


Burleson C.,Georgia Southern University | Shankar P.,Georgia Southern University | Ahuja S.,Lincoln University at Lincoln Park
Agro Food Industry Hi-Tech | Year: 2015

The global rise of childhood obesity has become a major public health concern due to surmounting evidence of associated health issues, including hypertension, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and some cancers. This requires a multifaceted approach to find solutions that can effectively control the epidemic. One major approach is breastfeeding, which is considered to be the preferred form of infant nutrition. Our review of literature finds substantive evidence that exclusive breastfeeding for at least one year after birth could possibly help prevent childhood obesity. One of the many documented benefits is its role in weight control, with breast-fed infants being leaner than their formula-fed counterparts through adulthood. Breastmilk is rich in many different biochemicals, including hormones that regulate appetite and promote healthy weight. Optimal nutrition should start early in infancy with exclusive and sustained breastfeeding if we are to make any headway against childhood obesity. Source


Modesto J.L.,Penn State Cancer Institute | Modesto J.L.,Pennsylvania State University | Hull A.,Lincoln University at Lincoln Park | Angstadt A.Y.,Penn State Cancer Institute | And 7 more authors.
Molecular Carcinogenesis | Year: 2015

The tobacco-specific nitrosamine NNK is a potent carcinogen found in tobacco smoke and implicated in the development of lung cancer. The major route of NNK metabolism is carbonyl reduction by AKR1C1, AKR1C2, CBR1, and 11β-HSD1 to form NNAL. This study investigated the potential role of variants in this pathway on lung cancer risk by examining 53 tag-SNPs representing the common variations in AKR1C1, AKR1C2, CBR1, and HSD11B1 in 456 lung cancer cases and 807 controls. One SNP in CBR1 (rs2835267) was significantly associated with overall risk of lung cancer, but did not pass multiple testing adjustment (OR: 0.76 95% CI: 0.58-0.99, P=0.048, FDR P=0.20). After stratification and multiple testing correction, three SNPs showed significance. One SNP (rs2835267) in CBR1 showed a significant decreased risk for smokers with a high pack-years (OR: 0.3595% CI: 0.17-0.69, P=0.018) and in SCC (OR: 0.4895% CI: 0.29-0.76, P=0.018). Another SNP located in CBR1 (rs3787728) also showed a significant decreased risk in SCC (OR: 0.4695% CI: 0.26-0.80, P=0.024) and small cell carcinoma (only in current smokers) (OR: 0.06895% CI: 0.01-0.42, P=0.028). The HSD11B1 SNP (rs4844880) showed a significant increased risk for adenocarcinoma within former smokers (OR: 3.9495% CI: 1.68-9.22, P=0.011). Haplotype analysis found significance with six haplotypes and lung cancer risk. These findings indicate that select variants in genes in the carbonyl reduction pathway of NNK may alter the risk of lung cancer. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

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