Wynn C.M.,Lincoln Laboratory
Optics express | Year: 2010
Noncontact detection of the homemade explosive constituents urea nitrate, nitromethane and ammonium nitrate is achieved using photodissociation followed by laser-induced fluorescence (PD-LIF). Our technique utilizes a single ultraviolet laser pulse (approximately 7 ns) to vaporize and photodissociate the condensed-phase materials, and then to detect the resulting vibrationally-excited NO fragments via laser-induced fluorescence. PD-LIF excitation and emission spectra indicate the creation of NO in vibrationally-excited states with significant rotational energy, useful for low-background detection of the parent compound. The results for homemade explosives are compared to one another and 2,6-dinitrotoluene, a component present in many military explosives.
Turitsyn S.K.,Aston University |
Bale B.G.,Aston University |
Bale B.G.,Lincoln Laboratory |
Fedoruk M.P.,Russian Academy of Sciences
Physics Reports | Year: 2012
Nonlinear systems with periodic variations of nonlinearity and/or dispersion occur in a variety of physical problems and engineering applications. The mathematical concept of dispersion managed solitons already has made an impact on the development of fibre communications, optical signal processing and laser science. We overview here the field of the dispersion managed solitons starting from mathematical theories of Hamiltonian and dissipative systems and then discuss recent advances in practical implementation of this concept in fibre-optics and lasers. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
Aguilar C.A.,Lincoln Laboratory |
Craighead H.G.,Cornell University
Nature Nanotechnology | Year: 2013
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the blueprint on which life is based and transmitted, but the way in which chromatin-a dynamic complex of nucleic acids and proteins-is packaged and behaves in the cellular nucleus has only begun to be investigated. Epigenetic modifications sit 'on top of' the genome and affect how DNA is compacted into chromatin and transcribed into ribonucleic acid (RNA). The packaging and modifications around the genome have been shown to exert significant influence on cellular behaviour and, in turn, human development and disease. However, conventional techniques for studying epigenetic or conformational modifications of chromosomes have inherent limitations and, therefore, new methods based on micro- and nanoscale devices have been sought. Here, we review the development of these devices and explore their use in the study of DNA modifications, chromatin modifications and higher-order chromatin structures. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Rabideau D.J.,Lincoln Laboratory
IET Radar, Sonar and Navigation | Year: 2011
The authors describe a process for designing low-cost, light-weight antenna apertures for use in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radars. In a MIMO radar system, two or more transmitters emit independent waveforms, with the resulting reflections received by an array of receivers. Recently, MIMO radar has become a subject of great interest. In part, this interest is due to the potential for MIMO techniques to reduce radar weight and cost, while maintaining performance (as compared with conventional radar approaches). However, the size of these reductions has not yet been quantified. Here, the authors describe a process for designing optimal radar apertures. This process treats the design problem as one of minimising an objective function under performance constraints. The objective function is based upon a first-order model for the relationship between cost (or weight) and performance, and is derived for systems employing active, element-digitised arrays. A systematic process for optimising the aperture's design with respect to this objective function is presented, and equations describing the optimal aperture are derived. These equations provide insight into the optimal relationship between various aperture characteristics, such as the number of transmitters, number of receivers, module power level and virtual array length. © 2011 © The Institution of Engineering and Technology.
Kerman A.J.,Lincoln Laboratory
New Journal of Physics | Year: 2013
It has long been thought that macroscopic phase coherence breaks down in effectively lower-dimensional superconducting systems even at zero temperature due to enhanced topological quantum phase fluctuations. In quasi-one-dimensional wires, these fluctuations are described in terms of 'quantum phase-slip' (QPS): tunneling of the superconducting order parameter for the wire between states differing by ±2π in their relative phase between the wire's ends. Over the last several decades, many deviations from conventional bulk superconducting behavior have been observed in ultra-narrow superconducting nanowires, some of which have been identified with QPS. While at least some of the observations are consistent with existing theories for QPS, other observations in many cases point to contradictory conclusions or cannot be explained by these theories. Hence, our understanding of the nature of QPS, and its relationship to the various observations, has remained imcomplete. In this paper we present a new model for QPS which takes as its starting point an idea originally postulated by Mooij and Nazarov (2006 Nature Phys. 2 169): that flux-charge duality, a classical symmetry of Maxwell's equations, can be used to relate QPS to the well-known Josephson tunneling of Cooper pairs. Our model provides an alternative, and qualitatively different, conceptual basis for QPS and the phenomena which arise from it in experiments, and it appears to permit for the first time a unified understanding of observations across several different types of experiments and materials systems. © IOP Publishing and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.